Correlation Between Newspapers’ Agenda and Public Agenda on National Issues during General Elections 2013 in Pakistan
International Journal of Journalism and Communication
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 1-10
Received: Aug. 9, 2016;
Accepted: Aug. 20, 2016;
Published: Sep. 5, 2016
Views 3286 Downloads 133
Mudassar Hussain Shah, Department of Communication Studies, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
Muhammad Yaqoub, Department of Media and Communication, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Saima Kausar, Department of Mass Communication, Queen Mary College, Lahore, Pakistan
Ashok Kumar, College of International Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China
This article looks into the position of agenda-setting of national press primarily focusing on national issues of vital importance during the phase of Parliamentary General Elections 2013 in Pakistan. The study finds the correlation between news papers’ agenda and public agenda, examining the influence of national press on public perception on the issue of salience by using triangulation; media agenda on ten national issues of top priority has been explored i.e. US-drone attacks, economic crisis, corruption, Indo-Pak relations, terrorism, energy crisis, Pak-Taliban talks, education, unemployment and health, at the front and back pages of three leading national popular daily Urdu Newspapers of Pakistan. Public agenda is scrutinized by survey research from 600 respondents, to explore what public perceive about these most important issues? The finding of this study reveals a moderate positive correlation between media agenda and public agenda. Hence, a significant positive correlation exists only on four out of ten national issues i.e. terrorism, energy crisis, US-drone attacks, and economic crisis. It is inferred that agenda setting of the press is dominant over plurality of public voice. This study has the strategic and policy implications.
Mudassar Hussain Shah,
Correlation Between Newspapers’ Agenda and Public Agenda on National Issues during General Elections 2013 in Pakistan, International Journal of Journalism and Communication.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2016, pp. 1-10.
Ader, C. R. (1995). A longitudinal study of agenda setting for the issue of environmental pollution. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 72(2), 300-311.
Ashraf, A. (2012). Relationship between Media Agenda and Audience Agenda on War on Terror. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing.
Babalola, E. A. (2002). Newspapers as instruments for building literate communities: The Nigerian experience. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 11(3), 403-410.
Barabas, J. (2016). Democracy’s Denominator Reassessing Responsiveness with Public Opinion on the National Policy Agenda. Public opinion quarterly, doi: 10.1093/poq/nfv082
Baumgartner, F., & Jones, B. (1995). Agendas and Instability in American Politics. Chicago. IL: University of Chicago Press.
Berelson, B. (1949). What missing newspaper means? In P. Lazarsfeld and F. Stanton, eds. Communication Research 1948-1949. New York: Harper and Row.
Brubaker, J. (2008). The freedom to choose a personal agenda: Removing our reliance on the media agenda. American Communication Journal, 10(3), 1-1.
Canel, M. J., Llamas, J. P., & Rey, F. (1996). El primer niveldelefecto agenda setting en la informacion local: Los 'problemas mas importantes' de la ciudad de Pamplona. (The first level agenda setting effect on local information: The 'most important problems' of the city of Pamplona). Communicacion y Sociedad, 9, 17–38.
Cohen, B. (1963). The Press and Foreign Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Coleman, R., & McCombs, M. (2007). The young and agenda-less? Exploring age-related differences in agenda setting on the youngest generation, baby boomers, and the civic generation. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(3), 495-508.
Cuestas, J. C., Freille, S., & O'Gorman, P. (2009). The Media and Public Agendas Testing for Media Effects in Argentina during 2003-2008. Revista de Economía y Estadística, 47(1), 97- 124.
Demers, I., Craff, I., Choi., Y., & Pessin, M. (1989). Issue obtrusiveness and the agenda-setting effects of national network news. Communication Research, 76(6), 793-81.
Du, Y. (2010). Intermedia Agenda-Setting in the Age of Globalization: A Multinational Agenda-Setting Test" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore. Retrieved on December 4, 2012 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p402343_index.html
Erikson, R. S., & Tedin, K. L. (2015). American public opinion: Its origins, content and impact. Routledge.
Eyal, C. H. (2016). 1 O Agenda-Setting for the Civil Rights Issue.”. Agenda Setting: Readings on Media, Public Opinion, and Policymaking, 101-125.
Funkhouser, G. R. (1973). The Issues of the Sixties: An Exploratory Study in the Dynamics of Public Opinion. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 37(1), 62-75.
Gilberg, S., & Eyal, C. (2016). Press Agenda”. Agenda Setting: Readings on Media, Public Opinion, and Policymaking, pp. 44, 223.
Guizlo, C. (2012). "Dealing with Jell-O": How Framing and Agenda Setting Affected Public Opinion In the 2011 Debt Ceiling Debate. Retrieved on January 12, 2013 from http://www.american.edu/soc/communication/upload/Chris-Guizlo.pdf
Harris, P., Kolovos, I., & Lock, A. (2001).Who sets the agenda? An analysis of agenda setting and press coverage in the 1999 Greek European elections. European Journal of Marketing, 35(9/10), 1117-1135.
Iyengar, S. & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters: Television and American opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, IL.
Lippmann, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
Mattes, R. (2016). Good news and bad: public perceptions of crime, corruption and government. South African Crime Quarterly, (18) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2413-3108/2006/v0i18a983
McCombs, M. (2004). Setting the agenda: Mass media and public opinion. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
McCombs, M. (2005). A Look at Agenda-setting: past, present and future. Journalism Studies, 6(4), 543-557.
McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176-187.
McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1993). The Evolution of Agenda-Setting Research: Twenty-Five Years in the Marketplace of Ideas. Journal of Communication, 43(2), 58-67.
Mills, T. F. (1981). Preserving yesterday's news for today's Historian: A brief history of newspaper preservation, bibliography, and indexing. Austin, Texas, USA: University of Texas Press.
Nelson, B. (2016). Making an Issue of. Agenda Setting: Readings on Media, Public Opinion, and Policymaking, p.161.
Palmgreen, P. (2016). Agenda-Setting With Local. Agenda Setting: Readings on Media, Public Opinion, and Policymaking, p.109.
Protess, D., & McCombs, M. E. (Eds.). (2016). Agenda setting: Readings on media, public opinion, and policymaking. Routledge.
Riaz, S. (2008). Agenda Setting Role of Mass Media. Global Media Journal, 1(2), ISSN 2070-2469.
Santos, J. R. A. (1999). Cronbach’s Alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. Tools of the Trade, 37(2), 1-5.
Schoenbach, K. (2005). Newspapers and their Impact on the extent of the perceived public agenda. European Journal of Communication, 20(2), 245-258.
Sevenans, J., Walgrave, S., & Joanna Epping, G. (2016). How Political Elites Process Information From the News: The Cognitive Mechanisms Behind Behavioral Political Agenda-Setting Effects. Political Communication, 1-23. doi: 10.1080/10584609.2016.1153543.
Shaw, D. L., & McCombs, M. (1977). The emergence of American political issues: The agenda setting function of the press. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Shehata, A. (2010). Unemployment on the Agenda: A Panel Study of Agenda-Setting Effects during the 2006 Swedish National Election Campaign. Journal of Communication, 60(1), 182-203.
Smith, K. A. (1987). Effects of newspaper coverage on community issue concerns and local government evaluation. Communication Research, 14(4), 379-395.
Smith, K. A. (1987). Newspaper coverage and public concern about community issues: A time series analysis. Journalism Monographs, 101.
Soroka, S. N. (2003). Media, public opinion, and foreign policy. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 8(1), 27-48.
Street, J. (2001). Mass Media, Politics and Democracy. New York: Palgrave.
Trent, J. S., & Friedenberg, R. V. (2004). Political campaign communication: Principles and practices. New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Vargo, C. (2011). Twitter As Public Salience: An Agenda-Setting Analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Grand & Suites Hotel, St. Louis, MO Online. Retrieved on December 2, 2012 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p519584_index.html
Wang, T. L. (2000). Agenda-setting online: An experiment testing the effects of hyperlinks in online newspapers. Southwestern Mass Communication Journal, 15(2), 59–70.
Wanta, W. (1997). The public and the national agenda, how people learn about important issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Wanta, W., & Ghanem, S. I. (2007). Effects of agenda-setting. In R. W. Preiss, B. M. Gayle, N. Burrell, M. Allen & J. Bryant (Eds.), Mass media effects research: Advances through meta-analysis, 37-51. Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Weaver, D., Graber, D., McCombs, M., & Eyal, C. (1981). Media Agenda Setting in a Presidential Election: Issues, Images and Interest. In Maxwell McCombs, The Agenda-Setting Role of the Mass Media in the Shaping of Public Opinion. (pp.3) Retrieved on January 1, 2013 from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/extra/McCombs.pdf
Wilson, B. (2016). EMS Denied 15 Minutes of Fame: Newspaper Coverage of. Social, Economic, and Political Perspectives on Public Health Policy-Making, p. 20
Winter, J. P., & Eyal, C. H. (1981). Agenda-setting for the civil rights issue. Public Opinion Quarterly, 45(3), 376–383.
Yoon, M. (1998). Testing the agenda–setting function of World Wide Web newspapers. Unpublished master's thesis, The University of Texas, Austin.
Zucker, H. G. (1978). The variable nature of news media influence. In B. D. Ruben (Ed.), Communication Yearbook: Vol. 2. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.