The utilization of agro-industrial residues to cultivate edible mushrooms is of great environmental importance. However, the use of lignocellulose as carbon source depends on the capacity of the mushroom to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes and to secrete them to the extracellular substrate. Thus, the profile of lignocellulolytic enzymes produced during different phases of cultivation of Pleurotus HK-37 on sisal waste fractions supplemented with cow dung manure was determined. Mushroom cultivation was performed in plastic bags using substrates formulated by mixing various proportions of sisal leaf residues and sisal boles and supplementing with cow dung manure on dry weight basis. A total of three hydrolytic (carboxymethyl cellulase, pectinase and xylanase) and two oxidative (laccase and lignin peroxidase) enzymes produced by Pleurotus HK-37 were analyzed. Among these enzymes assayed, laccase was found to be predominant and highly expressed. After 30 days of incubation, its activity was 158.75 ± 7.66 Ug-1wet spent mushroom substrate (SMS) on 30% supplemented sisal leaf decortication residues: sisal boles (25:75) substrate formulation. The highest lignin peroxidase activity observed was 4.01 ± 1.12 Ug-1wet SMS during full mycelia colonization on unsupplemented sisal leaf decortication residues: sisal boles (25:75) substrate formulation. Meanwhile, for the hydrolytic enzymes; the highest carboxymethyl cellulase activity (5.45 Ug-1wet SMS) was observed on unsupplemeted sisal leaf decortication residues: sisal boles (75:25) substrate formulation 50 days after of substrate inoculation, that of xylanase (3.73 ± 0.98 Ug-1wet SMS) was found on 10% supplemented sisal leaf decortication residues: sisal boles (0:100) substrate formulation after 20 days and that of pectinase (8.28 ± 2.14 Ug-1wet SMS) was observed 20 days after substrate inoculation on 30% supplemented sisal leaf decortication residues: sisal boles (100:0) substrate formulation. The present investigation indicates the utilization of solid sisal wastes as support-substrate for production of both edible mushrooms and extracellular enzymes during solid state fermentation; it also provides an alternative approach and value-addition to these agrowaste residues.
Anthony Manoni Mshandete,
Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi,
Enzyme Profiles of Pleurotus HK-37 During Mycelia Vegetative Growth and Fruiting on Solid Sisal Waste Fractions Supplemented with Cow Manure, Advances in Biochemistry.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2015, pp. 57-65.
J. A. Buswell, S. T. Chang, “Edible mushrooms: attributes and applications. In Genetics and breeding of edible mushrooms,” eds S. T. Chang, J. A. Buswell, and P. G. Miles, Philadelphia. Gordon and Breach Scientific Publishers, 1993 pp. 197-324.
Y. Hong, M. Dashtban, S. Chen, R. Song, and W. Qin, “Enzyme production and lignin degradation by four Basidiomycetous fungi in submerged fermentation of peat containing medium,” International Journal Biology 4(1), pp. 172 – 180. doi:10.5539/ijb.v4n1p172. 2012.
T. W. Jeffries, “Biodegradation of lignin and hemicelluloses,” In: C. Ratledge (ed.) Biochemistry of microbial degradation. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1994, pp 233–277.
M. Dashtban, H. Schraft, T. Syed, and W. Qin, “Fungal degradation and enzyme modification of lignin,” International Journal of Biochem. Mol. Biol., vol 1, pp. 36-50, 2010.
G. Y. Wei, W. Gao, I. H. Jin, S. Y. Yoo, J. H. Lee, C. H. Chung, and J. W. Lee, “Pretreatment and saccharification of rice hulls for the production of fermentable sugars,” Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 14(6), pp. 828-834, 2009.
Y. H. Tan, M. N. Wahab, “Extracellular enzyme production during anarmorphic growth in the edible mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol 13, pp. 613-617, 1997.
P. J. Hoegger, A. Majcherczyk, R. C. Dwivedi, K. Svobodová, S. Kilaru, and U. Kües, “Enzymes in wood degradation. In: Kües U. (Ed.), Wood Production, Wood Technology, and Biotechnological Impacts,” Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/univerlag/2007/wood_production.pdf, pp. 389-438, 2007.
A. Leonowicz, A. Matuszewska, J. Luterek, D. Ziegenhagen, M. Wojtas-Wasilewska, N. S. Cho, M. Hofrichter, and J. Rogalski ,“Biodegradation of lignin by white rot fungi,” Fungal Genetics and Biology, vol. 27, pp.175-185, 1999.
M. Muthangya, A. M. Mshandete, S. O. Hashim, M. J. Amana, A. K. Kivaisi, “Evaluation of enzymatic activity during vegetative growth and fruiting of Pleurotus HK 37 on Agave sisalana saline solid waste,” Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences 4(1), pp. 247-258, 2014.
F. Patrick, G. Y. S. Mtui, A. M. Mshandete, and A. K. Kivaisi, “Ligninolytic enzymes activities of Pleurotus sapidus P969 during vegetative growth and fruit development on sugarcane residues-based substrates,” International Journal of Biotechnology 3(4), pp.58-71, 2014.
M. Rühl, C. Fischer, and U. Kües, “Ligninolytic enzyme activities alternate with mushroom production during industrial cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw-based substrate,” Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy 2(4), pp. 478 -492, 2008.
J. M. Savoie, D. Salmones, and G. Mata, “Hydrogen peroxide concentration measured in cultivation substrates during growth and fruiting of the mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp,” Journal Science of Food and Agriculture 87(7), pp. 1337-1134, 2007.
N. Hatvani, and I. Mécs I, “Production of laccase and manga-nese peroxidase by Lentinus edodes on malt containing by product of the brewing process,” Proc. Biochemistry, vol 37, pp. 491-496, 2001.
B. E. Lechner, and V. L. Papinutti, “Production of lignocellulosic enzymes during growth and fruiting of the edible fungus Lentinus tigrinus on wheat straw,” Process Biochemistry, 41(3), pp. 594-598, 2006.
S. Ohga, “Adaptability of Lentinus edodes strains to a sawdust- based cultivating procedure,” Mokuzai Gakkaishi, vol. 38, pp. 301-309, 1992.
G. Mata, and J. M. Savoie, “Extracellular enzyme activity in six Lentinula edodes strains during cultivation in wheat straw,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 14(4), pp. 513–519, 1998.
A. M. Mshandete, “Cultivation of Pleurotus HK-37 and Pleurotus sapidus (oyster mushrooms) on cattail weed (Typha domingesis) substrate in Tanzania,” International Journal Research of Biological Sciences 1(3), pp. 35-44, 2011.
P. Raymond, A. M. Mshandete, and A. K. Kivaisi, “Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus HK-37) on solid sisal waste fractions supplemented with cow dung manure,” Journal of Biology and Life Science, 4(1), pp. 273-286, 2013. doi:10.5296/jbls.v4il.2975.
H. Risdianto, S. H. Suhardi, T. Setiadi, and T. Kokugan, “The influence of Temperature on Laccase Production in Solid State Fermentation by using White Rot Fungus Marasmius sp,” Proceeding of the 1st International Seminar on Fundamental and Application of Chemical Engineering. Bali 3-4 November 2010.
F. Patrick, G. Mtui, A. M. Mshandete, G. Johansson, and A. Kivaisi, “Purification and characterization of a laccase from the basidiomycete Funalia trogii (Berk.) isolated in Tanzania,” African Journal of Biochemistry Research 3(5), pp. 250-258, 2009.
M. Sugiura, H. Hirai, and T. Nishida, “Purification and characterization of a novel lignin peroxidase from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 224, pp. 285-290, 2003.
G. L. Miller, “Use of Dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar”, Analytical. Chemistry 31(3), pp. 426-428, 1959. doi:10.1021/ac60147a030.
T. K. Ghose, “Measurement of cellulase activities,” Pure and Applied Chemistry. 59(2), pp. 257-268, 1987.
A. Philippoussis, P. Diamantopoulou, G. Zervakis, “Monitoring of mycelial growth and fructification of Lentinula edodes on several lignocellulosic residues,” Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, (eds. J. E. Sanchez , G. Huerts , and E. Montiel) Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico, 2002, pp. 279-287.
Z. A. Shah, M. Ashra, and M. C. Ishtiaq, “Comparative study on cultivation and yield performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on different substrates (Wheat straw, Leaves and Sawdust),” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 3(3), pp. 158-160, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2004.158.160.
E. Baysal, H. Peker, M. K. Yalinkilic, and A. Temiz, “Cultivation of oyster mushroom on waste paper with some added supplementary materials,” Bioresource. Technology, 89(1), pp. 5-7, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00028-2.
 A. Tripathy, T. K. Sahoo, S. R. Begera, “Yield evaluation of paddy straw mushrooms (Volvoriella spp.) on various lignocellulosic wastes,” Botanical Research International 4(2), pp. 19-24, 2011.
J. A. Buswell, Y. J. Cai, and S. T. Chang, “Fungal- and substrate-associated factors affecting the ability of individual mushroom species to utilize different lignocellulosic growth substrates,” In: Mushroom biology and mushroom products eds. S. T. Chang, J. A. Buswell, S. W. Chiu, SW. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1993, pp. 141-150.
V. Elisashvili, E. Kachlishvili, M. J. Penninckx, “Lignocellulolytic enzymes profile during growth and fruiting of Pleurotusostreatuson wheat straw and tree leaves,” Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungaria, vol.55 pp.157-168, 2008.
S. Kurt, and S. Buyukalaca, “Yield performances and changes in enzyme activities of Pleurotus spp. (P. Ostreatus and P. Sajor-Caju) cultivated on different agricultural wastes,” Bioresource Technology, 101(9), pp. 3164–3169, 2010.
R. M. Gaitán-Hernández, A. Esqueda, Gutiérrez, and M. Beltrán-García, “Quantitative changes in the biochemical composition of lignocellulosic residues during the vegetative growth of Lentinula edodes,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 42(1): pp. 30-40, 2011.
K. Kirk, and D. Cullen D, “Enzymology and molecular genetics of wood degradation by white-rot fungi,” In: R. A. Young, and M. Akhtar, (eds). Environmentally friendly technologies for the pulp and paper industry. Wiley, New York, 1998. pp 273 -307.
D. Geetha, and K. Sivaprakasam, “Enzyme and sporophore production potential of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp),” Mushroom Resource, vol 7, pp 39-42, 1998.
R. D. Rai, and S. Saxena, “Extracellular enzymes and non structural compounds during growth of Pleurotus sajor-caju on rice straw,” Mushrooms Journal. Tropical, vol. 10, pp. 69-73, 1990.
A. A. Sherief, A. B. El-Tanash, and A. M. Temraz, “Lignocellulolytic enzymes and substrate utilization during growth and fruiting of Pleurotus ostreatus on some solid wastes,” Environmental Science Technology vol. 3, pp. 18-34, 2010.
G. V. Reddy, P. Ravindra Babu, P. Komaraiah, K. R. R. M. Roy, and I. L. Kothari, “Utilization of banana waste for the production of lignolytic and cellulolytic enzymes by solid substrate fermentation using two Pleurotus species (P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju),” Process Biochemistry, vol. 38, pp. 1457-1462, 2003.
D. S. Arora and P. K. Gill, “Laccase production by some white-rot fungi under different nutritional conditions,” Bioresource. Technology, vol. 73, pp. 283–285. 2000.
C. Raghukumar, T. M. Dsouza , R. G. Thorn, and C. A. Reddy, “Lignin-modifying enzymes of Flavodon flavus, a basidiomycete isolated from costal marine environment,” Applied Environmental Microbiology, vol. 65, pp. 2103–2111, 1999.
O. S. Isikhuemhen, and N. A. Mikiashvilli, “Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, substrate utilization and mushroom yield by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on substrate containing anaerobic digester solids,” Journal of Indian Microbial Biotechnology, vol. 32, pp. 1353-1362, 2009.
E. C. Giese, R. F. H. Dekker, and A. M. Barbosa, “Orange bagasse as substrate for production of pectinase and laccase by Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 in submerged and soild state fermentation,” BioResources 3(2), pp. 335-345, 2008.