Voluntary Running Enhances Hippocampal Proliferation by Increasing Hippocampal NGF, BDNF, and IGF-1
Advances in Biochemistry
Volume 5, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 1-6
Received: Jan. 4, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 25, 2017; Published: Mar. 4, 2017
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Authors
Bo Xu, Key Laboratory of Adolescent Health Assessment and Exercise Intervention of Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China; School of Physical Education & Health Care, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
Xianliang Zhang, College of Physical Education, Shandong University, Jinan, China
Chenghui Song, Department of Neuroscience, the Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida, USA
Fei Liang, School of Physical Education & Health Care, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
Li Zhang, Division of Physical Education, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing, China
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Abstract
Neurotrophic factors and growth factors are known to have positive effects on hippocampal proliferation. However, previous findings on the effects of these factors on exercise-induced hippocampal proliferation are inconsistent. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary running on hippocampal proliferation and the expression levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in hippocampus. Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control groups 1 and 2 (C1, n = 6; C2, n = 6) and running groups 1 and 2 (R1, n = 6; R2, n = 6). Mice from C1 and C2 were placed individually in standard cages for eight weeks; mice from R1 and R2 were housed individually in cages with a running wheel for eight weeks. At the fifth week, C1 and R1 mice were injected with BrdU for 7 consecutive days. On the first day of the ninth week, the C1 and R1 mice were anaesthetized and hippocampal neuronal proliferation was assessed using immunohistochemistry; the mice in C2 and R2 were sacrificed to test the expression levels of NGF, BDNF, and IGF-1 mRNA in hippocampus using RT-PCR. The results indicated that voluntary running significantly increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), and significantly upregulated the levels of NGF, BDNF, and IGF-1 mRNA in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our findings indicated that hippocampal proliferation was enhanced by voluntary running, which was associated with increased NGF, BDNF, and IGF-1 mRNA levels in the hippocampus.
Keywords
Voluntary Exercise, Hippocampal Proliferation, NGF, BDNF, IGF-1
To cite this article
Bo Xu, Xianliang Zhang, Chenghui Song, Fei Liang, Li Zhang, Voluntary Running Enhances Hippocampal Proliferation by Increasing Hippocampal NGF, BDNF, and IGF-1, Advances in Biochemistry. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.ab.20170501.11
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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