Lipid Lowering Potentials and Phytochemical Properties of Colocasia esculenta Leaf Extract in Rats
Advances in Biochemistry
Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2020, Pages: 16-20
Received: Feb. 9, 2020; Accepted: Feb. 26, 2020; Published: Mar. 10, 2020
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Frank Uchenna Eneh, Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Chibuike Johnson Ogbu, Department of Applied Biochemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
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Hyperlipidemia has remained a major risk factor in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases and research efforts have been geared toward proffering remedies through diet and nutrition inherent in potent herbaceous plants. This study therefore investigated the effect of ethanol extract of the leaves of Colocasia esculenta on the serum lipid profile of male Albino rats as well as phytochemicals of ethnomedicinal importance. A total of 18 rats divided into three groups of 6 rats each were engaged in the investigation. The first group (baseline) was sacrificed after purchase; second group (control) was fed rat chow, and the third group (test) was fed a composite feed containing rat chow and 5% extract of C. esculenta leaves. The lipid profile total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) of the rats were assayed after 21 days of feeding and the result showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the test and control groups for the lipids assayed. The extracts of C. esculenta reduced TC and LDL levels significantly (p<0.05) from 4.01±2.28 in control to 0.31±0.25mmol/L in the test for TC and then from 1.53±1.19 in the control to 0.07±0.04mmol/L in the test for LDL. This indicates that the leaves of this plant have a very high tendency to be protective against cardiovascular diseases. However, there was a marked increase in the TAG level of the test group (2.37±0.84mmol/L) compared to the control group (0.22±0.18mmol/L). This was nevertheless found to be not significant (p>0.05) but indicates the possibility for enhancement of TAG synthesis by the leaves of C. esculenta. Phytochemical screening showed a rich array of plant metabolites including flavonoids, saponins, tannins and alkaloids which may contribute to the hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract of the plant. Further investigations may require identifying and characterizing the phytochemicals responsible for the overall role of the plant in folklore medicine.
Colocasia esculenta, Leaves, Serum, Lipid Profile, Rats, Hyperlipidemia
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Frank Uchenna Eneh, Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Chibuike Johnson Ogbu, Lipid Lowering Potentials and Phytochemical Properties of Colocasia esculenta Leaf Extract in Rats, Advances in Biochemistry. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020, pp. 16-20. doi: 10.11648/j.ab.20200801.13
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