Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Crude Cotton Seed Oil Using Central Composite Design
Advances in Biochemistry
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 94-100
Received: Aug. 24, 2016;
Accepted: Sep. 10, 2016;
Published: Dec. 16, 2016
Views 3288 Downloads 199
Mustapha Mujeli, Department of Biotechnology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Haruna Mavakumba Kefas, Department of Chemical Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Awwal Shitu, Department of Biotechnology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Ibrahim Ayuba, Department of Biotechnology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Cheap raw materials and optimum process conditions of a transesterification reaction continued to be the most essential factors in determining the production of the biodiesel in commercial quantity to meet up the current global demand. In this study the crude cottonseed oil was used as an economical feedstock for biodiesel production since its demand as a cooking oil has reduced due to health issues related to its consumption. The process variables affecting the transesterification reaction such as methanol/oil ratio (4:1-9:1 mol/mol), catalyst weight (0.5-2%), temperature (40-65°C), reaction time (50-120 min) were optimized using rotatable central composite design of the response surface methodology in order to enhance the percentage yield of the biodiesel production. The maximum biodiesel yield (93.34%) was achieved under 8.08:1 mol/mol methanol/oil ratio, 1.87% catalyst weight, 40°C reaction temperature and 120 min reaction time. The properties of the biodiesel produced which include kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point, pour point and flash point were determined and compared with the European fatty acid methyl ester standard.
Haruna Mavakumba Kefas,
Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Crude Cotton Seed Oil Using Central Composite Design, Advances in Biochemistry.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2016, pp. 94-100.
X. Fan, X. Wang, and F. Chen, “Biodiesel Production from Crude Cottonseed Oil : An Optimization Process Using Response Surface Methodology,” pp. 1–8, 2011.
A. S. Reshad, P. Tiwari, and V. V. Goud, “Extraction of oil from rubber seeds for biodiesel application: Optimization of parameters,” Fuel, vol. 150, pp. 636–644, 2015.
F. Al Basir, S. Datta, and P. K. Roy, “Studies on biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using chemical and biochemical methods - A mathematical approach,” Fuel, vol. 158, pp. 503–511, 2015.
H. C. Joshi, J. Toler, and T. Walker, “Optimization of cottonseed oil ethanolysis to produce biodiesel high in Gossypol content,” JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 357–363, 2008.
I. B. Banković-Ilić, O. S. Stamenković, and V. B. Veljković, “Biodiesel production from non-edible plant oils,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 3621–3647, 2012.
A. Ribeiro, F. Castro, and J. Carvalho, “Influence of Free Fatty Acid Content in Biodiesel Production on Non-Edible Oils,” in International Conference Waste: Solutions, Treatments and Opportunities, 2011.
A. Demirbas, “Biofuels,” in Biofuels, 2009, pp. 87–101.
M. L. Savaliya, J. R. Patel, and B. Z. Dholakiya, “A Concise Review on Acid, Alkali and Enzyme Catalyzed Transesterification of Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol ( FAEG ) to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester ( FAME ) Fuel,” Int. J. Chem. Stud., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 5–19, 2013.
G. Knothe, J. H. Van Gerpen, J. Krahl, and others, The biodiesel handbook, vol. 1. 2005.
M. N. Nabi, M. M. Rahman, and M. S. Akhter, “Biodiesel from cotton seed oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 29, no. 11–12, pp. 2265–2270, 2009.
J. Qian, F. Wang, S. Liu, and Z. Yun, “In situ alkaline transesterification of cottonseed oil for production of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, no. 18, pp. 9009–9012, 2008.
D. O. Onukwuli, L. N. Emembolu, C. N. Ude, S. O. Aliozo, and M. C. Menkiti, “Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization,” Egypt. J. Pet., pp. 0–7, 2016.
N. B. Kyriakidis and T. Katsiloulis, “Calculation of iodine value from measurements of fatty acid methyl esters of some oils: Comparison with the relevant American Oil Chemists Society method,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 1235–1238, 2000.
I. M. Atadashi, M. K. Aroua, A. R. Abdul Aziz, and N. M. N. Sulaiman, “Membrane biodiesel production and refining technology: A critical review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 5051–5062, 2011.
E. S. EN: 14214, “Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods,” 2008.
B. S. I. ISO: 3104, “Petroleum products - Transparant and opaque liquids - Determination of kinematic viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity,” 1976.
B. S. I. ISO: 3675, “Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products — laboratory determination of density or relative density — hydrometer method,” 1998.
B. S. I. ISO: 1523, “Determination of flash point -- Closed cup equilibrium method,” 2002.
B. S. I. ISO: 3015, “Petroleum products -- Determination of cloud point,” 1992.
B. itish S. I. ISO: 3016, “Petroleum products -- Determination of pour point,” 1994.
A. Demirbas, “Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: A survey,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 44, no. 13, pp. 2093–2109, 2003.
P. J. Wan, D. R. Pakarinen, and P. J. Wakelyn, “Concerns for the Determination of Free Fatty Acid in,” vol. 75, no. 10, 1998.
U. Rashid, F. Anwar, and G. Knothe, “Evaluation of biodiesel obtained from cottonseed oil,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 90, no. 9, pp. 1157–1163, 2009.
A. Demirbas, “Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 14–34, 2009.
M. Rahimi, B. Aghel, M. Alitabar, A. Sepahvand, and H. R. Ghasempour, “Optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil in a microreactor,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 79, pp. 599–605, 2014.