Comparative Study of Incretin Versus Non- Incretin Based Therapies on Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Advances in Biochemistry
Volume 6, Issue 2, April 2018, Pages: 10-18
Received: Mar. 24, 2018;
Accepted: May 19, 2018;
Published: Jun. 11, 2018
Views 1539 Downloads 211
Alias Tesfamariam, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Menakath Menon, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tedla Kebede, Department of Internal Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Solomon Genet, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. Over the years, attempts to regulate diabetics therapeutically through glycemic control have reduced complications and trauma associated with the disease. Aim of this study was to compare efficacy of incretin-based versus non-incretin based therapies on type-2 diabetic patients and a hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted. Sixty type-2 diabetic patients who received non-incretin and thirty who received incretin based therapies were randomly selected for the study. The mean total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, serum urea and serum creatinine were significantly lower in patients who received incretin-based therapies than those who received non-incretin based therapies. The mean high density lipoprotein was also significantly increased among the incretin based treated group. The mean body mass index and fasting blood sugar were lower in the incretin-based compared to non-incretin based treated patients. Female had insignificantly higher level of blood sugar, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, serum urea, body mass index and lower level of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and serum creatinine compared to male in both groups. Incretin-based therapy helps normalize lipid profiles, blood sugar level, body mass index and also improves kidney clearance pattern.
Comparative Study of Incretin Versus Non- Incretin Based Therapies on Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Advances in Biochemistry.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2018, pp. 10-18.
Rudasingwa GJ, Amendezo E, Twagirumukiza M (2012) Clinical patterns and complications of African diabetes patients: preliminary data from Kigali University Teaching Hospital, Rwanda. Afr. J Diab Med 20: 39-42.
Ogurtsova K, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Huang Y, Linnenkamp U, Guariguata L, Cho NH, Cavan D, Shaw JE, Makaroff LE (2017) IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 128: 40-5.
American Diabetic Assiciation (2009) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 32 (Suppl 1): S62–S67.
Anjali DD, Marcie HH, Mario S (2008) Epidemiology of Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Complications. Phys Ther 88(11): 1254–126.
International Diabetes Federation (2013) Atlas of Diabetes; sixth edition, p7.
Fowler MJ (2008) Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Clinical diabetes, 26(2): 77-82.
Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group (2008) Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. The New Engl. J. Med. 358(24):2545.
Holstein A, Egberts EH (2003) Risk of hypoglycaemia with oral antidiabetic agents in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 111(7): 405-14.
Whitmer RA, Karter AJ, Yaffe K, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV (2009). Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 301(15): 1565-1572.
Pratley RE, Salsali A (2007) Inhibition of DPP-4: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res opin 23(4): 919-931.
Nauck MA, Vardarli I, Deacon CF, Holst JJ, Meier JJ (2011) Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type 2 diabetes: what is up, what is down? Diabetologia 54(1): 10-18.
International Diabetes Federation (2011) Atlas of Diabetes global estimates of the Prevalence of diabetes for 2011 and 2030.
Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H (2004) Global prevalence of diabetes estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes care 27(5): 1047-1053
Hao X, Ke-ji C (2011) Integrating traditional medicine with biomedicine towards a patient-centered healthcare system. Chin J Integ Med 17(2): 83-84.
Coxon B, Schaffer R (1971) Characterization and quantitative analysis of D-glucose for use in clinical analysis. Analytical chemistry 43(12): 1565-1570.
Allain, CC, Poon, LS, Chan, CS Richmond, WF, Fu, PC (1974). Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clinical chemistry 20(4): 470-475.
Friedewald, WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18(6): 499–502.
Marín-Peñalver JJ, Martín-Timón I, Sevillano-Collantes C, del Cañizo-Gómez FJ (2016) Update on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diab 7(17): 354–395.
Khoo J, Rayner CK, Jones KL, Horowitz M (2009) Incretin-based therapies: new treatments for type 2 diabetes in the new millennium. Ther Clin Risk Manag 5(3): 683-698.
Karen B, Mary E, Cox B (2010) Clinical utility of fixed combinations of sitagliptin–metformin in treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metab Synd Obes 3:363- 372.
Shannon AM, Erin LO, Roger AJ (2009) Sitagliptin as combination therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2: 23–30.
Green TB, Bethel MA, Armstrong PW et al (2015) Effect of Sitagliptin on cardiovascular outcomes in Type-2 diabetes. 2015. N. Engl. J. med. 373: 232-242. doi: 10. 1056/NE JMOa1501352.
Liu J, Li L, Deng K, Xu C, Busse J et al (2017) Incretin based treatments and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: Systemic review and meta analysis. BMJ 357: j2499. doi: https//doi.org/10. 1136 bmj.j2499.
Chin HJ, Nam JH, Lee EK, Shin J (2017) Comparative safety for cardiovascular outcomes of DPP-4 inhibitors versus glimepiride in patients with type-2 diabetes. Medicine 96(25): e7213. doi: 10. 1097/MD. 0000000000007213.
Moon MK, Hur KY, Ko SH, Park SO, Lee BW et al (2017) Combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab. J 41(5): 357-366. doi: 10. 4093/dmj. 2017. 41. 5. 357.
Chan JC, Scott R, Arjona Ferreira JC, Sheng D, Gonzalez E, et al (2008) Safety and efficacy of Sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency. Diabetes Obes Metab. 10(7): 545-555. doi: 10. 1111/j. 1463-1326. 2008. 00914.x. E Pub2008Jun1.