Heterogeneous Phyto-Antibiotics and Other Future Therapeutics Against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria
Advances in Biochemistry
Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 34-50
Received: Jun. 27, 2019; Accepted: Jul. 30, 2019; Published: Aug. 23, 2019
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Asit Kumar Chakraborty, Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, OIST, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, India
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Phage therapy, enzybiotics, gene medicine and nanodrug-carriers are most vital components of modern research against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Genome evolutionoccurs due to environmental toxicities of various types where soil bacteria are in symbiosis with plant world who secret anti-metabolites against soil bacteria. Gut microbiome secrete vitamins required for our body where as intestinal cells synthesis interleukins and cytokines for symbiotic control of intestinal bacteria. Before the discovery of antibiotic in 1928, peoples trusted plant derived remedies against variety of illness described in Indian Sanskrit books like Charaka Samhita, Sasruta Samhita and Atharva Veda. AMR disease occurred due to repeated but uncontrolled use of antibiotics affecting gut microbiome who acquired many mdr genes in plasmids. We estimated that are 40% of all river and sea water borne bacteria were ampicillin and to lesser extent tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and streptomycin resistant. Where as <1% were multidrug-resistant and ~0.002% Enterobacteriaceae were meropenem, linezolid or amikacin resistant. MDR genes like amp, neo, tet, aac, cat, aph, aad, mcr-1, blaNDM-1, blaKPC-1, arr3, sul1, dhfr, inh, acrAB, mexAB, macAB and mtrCD were amplified with millions mutated isomers increasing all drugs MIC. We studied Indian medicinal plants and spices to get valuable cheap drugs where modified agriculture and/or tissue culture increased the drug concentration. We showed that MDR bacteria were sensitive to organic extract of Suregada multiflora roots, Cassia fistula bark, Jatropha gossypifolia roots as well as Indian spices Labanga and Derchini (MDR-Cure). TLC and HPLC purification as well as UV-VIS, MASS, NMR, FT-IR and XRD-Powder gave many distinct signatures of pure chemicals that also inhibited multidrug-resistant bacteria. Biological targets of 12 chemicals are under investigation targeting DNA Topoisomerase I, DNA Polymerase and RNA Polymerase of Escherichia coli. Indian Government has started Herbal Mission, Ganga Mission and various Plantation Programmes to curve MDR pathogenesis.
Multidrug-Resistance, Superbug Spread, Antibiotic Void, Drug Design, Heterogeneous Phyto-Antibiotics, Gut Biofilm, Vitamin Synthesis
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Asit Kumar Chakraborty, Heterogeneous Phyto-Antibiotics and Other Future Therapeutics Against Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria, Advances in Biochemistry. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 34-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ab.20190702.11
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