Effect of Dry Garlic Powder on Plasma Lipid Profile and Enzyme Activities in Some Tissues of Hypercholesterolemic Rats
Advances in Biochemistry
Volume 2, Issue 3, June 2014, Pages: 45-49
Received: May 3, 2013;
Accepted: Jun. 27, 2014;
Published: Jul. 20, 2014
Views 3293 Downloads 199
Ajayi O. B., Biochemistry department, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Ajayi D. D., Department of Chemical Pathology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
The effect of garlic powder at 5% and 10% level on plasma lipid profile was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Male albino rats were fed a diet containing 20% fat and 1% cholesterol for two weeks to provoke hypercholesterolemia. The hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into three groups B, C and D. Group A rats were fed with normal diet, Group B were maintained on the hyper diet, Group C were fed hyper diet +5% garlic powder, Group D were fed hyper diet with +10% garlic powder. They were maintained on this diet for four weeks. Results showed that the plasma total cholesterol and LDL-C was significantly reduced in the treated groups (C and D) compared to the hypercholesterolemic control (Group B), while the HDL-C was significantly increased (P<0.05). Also plasma enzyme activities of Aspartate and Alanine Aminotransferases (AST. ALT) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) showed a slight decrease in the treated rats. It is concluded that consumption of dry garlic powder at the level used in this study could be beneficial on the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia.
Ajayi O. B.,
Ajayi D. D.,
Effect of Dry Garlic Powder on Plasma Lipid Profile and Enzyme Activities in Some Tissues of Hypercholesterolemic Rats, Advances in Biochemistry.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 45-49.
Gernot, K. (2005). Spice pages: Garlic (Allium sativum, garlic) http://wwwuni-graz. At/katzer/engl/Allisat.htmt.
Galeone, C., Pelucchi, C., Levi, F., Negri, E., Franceshis.,Talamini, R., Giacosa, A.LaVecchia, C. (2006). Onion and garlic use and human cancer Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 84:1027 -1032.
Ried, K., Frank, O.R., Stocks, N.P., Fakler, P., Sullivan, T. (2008). Effect of garlic on blood pressure a systematic review and meta-analysis BMC Cardiov. Disord. 8:13.
Oloyede, O.B.,Folayan, A.T. and Akanji, M.A. (1992). Increase in ALP activities in rat tissues following consumption of diets low in iron deficient in EFAs. Med. Sci. Res. 20, 735-736.
Wright, P.J.; Leathwood, P.D and Plummer, D.T. (1972) Enzymes in rat urine: Alkaline phosphatase.Enzymologia 42, 317 – 327.
Reitman, S. and Frankel, S. (1955) Determination of serum transaminase. Am. J. Clin. Path. 28, 56 – 59.
Plummer, D.T.(1978) An introduction to practical Biochemistry. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, London. Pp. 144 – 145.
Stens, E.A. and G.L.Myers (1995) National cholesterol education programme: Recommendations for triglyceride measurements. Clinical Chemistry 41:1421-1426.
Friedewald, W.T.,Leuy R.T andFriekson. D.S (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low density liproprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin.Chem., 18, 499-502.
Durrington, P. (2003) Dyslipidiemia Lancet 362 (9385): 717 -731
Aouadi, R, A., Aouadet, A., Elkadhi, C., Ben Rayana, H., Jaafoura, B.,Tritar and K. Nagati (2000). Effect of fresh garlic Allium sativum on lipid metabolism in male rats Nutrition Res. 20: 273-280.
Khalid S. Al-Numair (2009) Hypocholesterolemic and Antioxidant effects of garlic (Allium sativum L) extract in Rats fed High cholesterol Diet. Pak. J. Nutr.8(2): 161-166.
Albdelhaim , M. A.K., Alhadlaq, H.A. (2008) Effect of cholesterol feeding periods on blood haematology and biochemistry of rabbits. Int. J. Biol. Chem. 2(2): 49-53.
Augusti, K.T, Narayanan, A, Pillai H.S., Ibrahim, R.S., Sivadasam, R. and Nair, S.S. (2001) Beneficial effects of garlic on rats fed with diets containing cholesterol and either of the oil seeds, coconuts or groundnuts Indian. J. Exp. Biol 39(7): 660 – 667.
Steiner, M., Khan A.H., Holbert, D. and Lin, R.I. (1996). A double blind cross over study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipid. Am. J.Clin. Nutr. 64:866-870.
Kannar, D., Wathanapenpaiboon, N., Savige, G.S. and Wahhiquist, M.L. (2001). Hypocholesterolemic effect of an enteric-coated garlic supplement J. Am. Coll. Nutr 20 (3): 225-231
Lin, S. and Yen, Y.Y. (2002) S-Alkene cystines of garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis by deactivating HMG-CoA reductase in cultured rat hepatocyte J.Nutr. 132(6): 1129 -1134.
Kourounakis, P.N. and Rekka, E.A. (1991) Effect on active oxygen species of alliim and Allium sativum garlic powder. Res. Comm.Patholpharmacol. 74:249 -252.
Phelps, S. and William S.H. (1993) Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility Lipids 28:475 -477.
American Heart Association (2005) cholesterol http://www.american heart of org/piesenter.
Catherine, N., Nicolas, C., Elyett, G., Lydia, J., Edmond, R., Andrzej, M., Pierve, A., Christian, R. (2004) Health effect of vegetable-based diet: lettuce consumption improves cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant status in the rat. J. Clin. Nutr. 23: 605 -614.
YusufS, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Hanas F, (2004). Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study). Case control study Lancet 364: 937 -952.
Yeh, Y.Y., Yeh, S.M. (1994) Garlic reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol synthesis Lipids, 29:189-193
Borek, C. (2001) Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract J.Nutr. 131 (3s):1010s-5s review
Brothe, T., Seigers, C.P., Platt, O. (1991) The effect of garlic therapy on cholesterol biosynthesis and on plasma and membrane lipids Med. Lett 42:10-11.
Qureshi, A.A., Abuirmeileh, N., Din, Z.Z., lson, C.E., Burger ,W.C.(1983a) Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids: 18:343-348.
Kew, M.I., (2000) Serum aminotransferase concentration as evidence of hepatocellular damage Lancet 335:951 -952
Dobbs, N.A., Twelves, C.J., Greory, W., Cruickshauka, C., Richard, M.A., Ruben, R.D.(2003) Epirubicin in patients with liver dysfunction development and evaluation of a novel dose modification scheme Eur. J. Cancer 39:580 – 586.
Chawla, R. (1999) practical clinical Biochemistry (Methods and interpretations) second edition Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India pp106-118