Effect of Cadmium on the Liver and Amelioration by Aqueous Extracts of Fenugreek Seeds, Rosemary, and Cinnamon in Guinea pigs: Histological and Biochemical Study
Cell Biology
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 7-17
Received: May 31, 2014; Accepted: Jun. 13, 2014; Published: Jun. 30, 2014
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Authors
Mohamed Omer Albasha, Department of Zoology, Alejelat Faculty of Science, Zawia University, Libya
Azab El-Saied Azab, Department of Zoology, Alejelat Faculty of Science, Zawia University, Libya
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Abstract
Hepatotoxic agents can react with the basic cellular components and consequently induce almost all types of liver lesions. Objective: The present work aimed to evaluate effectiveness of fenugreek seeds, rosemary and cinnamon against cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in guinea pigs from the histological and biochemical aspects. Materials and methods: 48 guinea pigs were used for this study and divided into 8 groups. The first 4 groups were control groups, the 5th group was the experimental and administered oral cadmium chloride at a dose of 5 mg/kg. body weight./day for 28 days, the 6th, 7th, and 8th groups co-administered cadmium with aqueous extracts of fenugreek seeds, rosemary and cinnamon at a dose of 150 mg, 220 mg, and 200 mg/ kg body weight /day, respectively. The livers were dissected out, weighted and specimens were taken and processed for light microscopic examinations. Blood samples were obtained for assessment of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ- glutamyltransferase activities, and serum total and direct bilirubin. Results: In cadmium treated animals, there were severe structural damage in the liver. Most of hepatocytes appeared fused together forming eosinophilic syncytial masses. The hepatocytes appeared irregularly arranged with disorganization of hepatic architecture. The hepatocytes appeared large with light and foamy cytoplasm filled with numerous vacuole-like spaces. The nuclei appeared with pyknotic nuclei. The central vein appeared dilated and congested with massive hemorrhage extending to the nearby cells. Mild periductal fibrosis around bile duct in the portal area were observed. Also, there were focal degenerative and necrotic changes along with inflammatory cell infiltration. Decrease in body weight and increase in liver weight were observed. Biochemically, the serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), and γ- glutamyltransferase activities, serum total and direct bilirubin were elevated. Co-adminstration of fenugreek, rosemary and cinnamon significantly improved the structural changes in the liver and also all the above mentioned biochemical parameters were significantly declined. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, the cadmium had adverse effects on the liver. Aqueous extracts of different natural materials as Fenugreek, rosemary and cinnamon were able to attenuate these effects. So, the populations of high risk to cadmium should be advised to take one of these materials.
Keywords
Cadmium, Hepatotoxicity, Serum Enzymes Activities (ALT, AST, ALP, γ-GT), Serum Bilirubin, Histology, Fenugreek Seeds, Rosemary, Cinnamon
To cite this article
Mohamed Omer Albasha, Azab El-Saied Azab, Effect of Cadmium on the Liver and Amelioration by Aqueous Extracts of Fenugreek Seeds, Rosemary, and Cinnamon in Guinea pigs: Histological and Biochemical Study, Cell Biology. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014, pp. 7-17. doi: 10.11648/j.cb.20140202.11
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