Extracellular Vesicles (EVs); Basic Science, Clinical Relevance and Applications
Cell Biology
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 60-71
Received: Nov. 29, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 16, 2014; Published: Dec. 22, 2014
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Authors
Wael Nassar, Department of Nephrology, Sahel Teaching Hospital, General Organization of Teaching Hospitals and Institutes (GOTHI), Cairo, Egypt ; Department of Nephrology, Kidney Transplantation Unit, October Six University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt
Mervat El-Ansary, Department of Clinical Pathology, Stem Cell Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Mostafa Abdel Aziz, Department of Nephrology, Kidney Transplantation Unit, October Six University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt
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Abstract
All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small Nano-vesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as “garbage bags” only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and coworkers, in 2007, was the first who discovered the capability of circulating EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extra cellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemo-resistance, genetic exchange and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived extracellular vesicles not only to represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we’ll be addressing the characteristics of different types and the clinical relevance of these extracellular EVs and their potentials as diagnostic markers as well as defining therapeutic options.
Keywords
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), Exosomes, Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT), Microvesicles (MVs)
To cite this article
Wael Nassar, Mervat El-Ansary, Mostafa Abdel Aziz, Extracellular Vesicles (EVs); Basic Science, Clinical Relevance and Applications, Cell Biology. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 60-71. doi: 10.11648/j.cb.20140206.12
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