Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 9-17
Received: Sep. 21, 2016;
Accepted: Sep. 29, 2016;
Published: Oct. 27, 2016
Views 4788 Downloads 136
Zulkar Nain, Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science & Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh
Md Ariful Islam, Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science & Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh
Sadrul Hasan Chowdhury, Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science & Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh
Sadia Afroza, Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science & Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh
Iftakhar Hussain, Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Science & Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh
Regeneration of lost tail is of great importance to lizards. Anolis carolinensis, a green lizard, is capable of regenerating its tail efficiently after autotomy. Hence, it is considered as a model organism in regeneration study. A. carolinensis shed its tail in order to distract the predator’s attention and thus makes a way to escape. Restoring of the amputated tail takes several days and the mechanism is currently clearly understood. Although save its life, tail regeneration is associated with the impairment of several vital functions in anoles. In addition, various differences have been observed between original and regenerated tail in terms of mechanism and structure. To date, very little work has been conducted on tail autotomy and regeneration at molecular and genetic level. The genes responsible for regeneration in anoles are identified recently. These genes are evolutionarily conserved through all tetrapod vertebrates. They are, however, in a state of ‘switched-off’ in other vertebrates including humans. Consequently, a throughout study of these so-called ‘switched-off’ genes may provide a way of restoring lost organs in human, and thus could revolutionize the modern medical science.
Md Ariful Islam,
Sadrul Hasan Chowdhury,
Current Understanding on Tail Regeneration in Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis), Cell Biology.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2016, pp. 9-17.
Sheppard, L. and Bellairs, A. d’A., 1972. The mechanism of autotomy in Lacerta. Brit J Herpetol, 4: 276–286.
Gilbert, E. A., Payne, S. L. and Vickaryous, M. K., 2013. The anatomy and histology of caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards. Physiol Biochem Zool, 86(6): 631–644.
Bryant, S. V. and Bellairs, A.d’A., 1985. Autotomy and regeneration in reptiles. Biology of the Reptilia, 15: 301–410.
Arnold, E. N., 1988. Caudal autotomy as a defense. Biology of the Reptilia, 16: 235–273.
Maginnis, T. L., 2006. The costs of autotomy and regeneration in animals: a review and framework for future research. Behav Ecol, 17(5): 857–872.
Alibardi, L., 2010. Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards: A model system with implications for tissue regeneration in mammals. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol, 207: 1-109.
Hong, V. and Thornton, B., 2015. Differential Protein Expression During Tail Regeneration of Anolis carolinensis. Research in Biology, Paper 3.
Higham, T. E. and Russell, A. P., 2010. Flip, flop and fly: modulated motor control and highly variable movement patterns of autotomized gecko tails. Biol Lett, 6(1): 70–73.
Lovern, M. B., Holmes, M. M. and Wade, J., 2004. The green anole (Anolis carolinensis): a reptilian model for laboratory studies of reproductive morphology and behavior. ILAR J, 45(1): 54–64.
Alfoldi, J., Di Palma, F., Grabherr, M., Williams, C. and Kong, L. et al., 2011. The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals. Nature, 477(7366): 587–591.
Eckalbar, W. L., Hutchins, E. D., Markov, G. J., Allen, A. N. and Corneveaux, J. J. et al., 2013. Genome reannotation of the lizard Anolis carolinensis based on 14 adult and embryonic deep transcriptomes. BMC Genomics, 14(49): 49.
Tang, J., Pecka, J. L., Fritzsch, B., Beisel, K. W. and He, D. Z. Z., 2013. Lizard and Frog Prestin: Evolutionary Insight into Functional Changes. PLoS ONE, 8(1): e54388.
Ritzman, T. B., Stroik, L. K., Julik, E., Hutchins, E. D. and Lasku, E. et al. The gross anatomy of the original and regenerated tail in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis). Anat Rec (Hoboken), 295(10): 1596–1608.
Tollis, M., Hutchins, E. D. and Kusumi, K., 2014. Reptile genomes open the frontier for comparative analysis of amniote development and regeneration. Int J Dev Biol, 58(10-12): 863-871.
Cox, P. G., 1968. In vitro myogenesis of promuscle cells from the regenerating tail of the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. J Morphol, 126(1): 1–17.
Simpson Jr, S. B., 1968. Morphology of the regenerated spinal cord in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. J Comp Neurol, 134(2): 193–210.
Simpson Jr, S. B. and Duffy, M. T., 1994. The lizard spinal cord: a model system for the study of spinal cord injury and repair. Prog Brain Res, 103: 229–241.
Alibardi, L., 1995. Development of the axial cartilaginous skeleton in the regenerating tail of lizards. Bull Assoc Anat, 79(244): 3-9.
Alibardi, L., 1995. Muscle differentiation and morphogenesis in the regenerating tail of lizards. J Anat, 186(1): 143-151.
Hutchins, E. D., Markov, G. J., Eckalbar, W. L., George, R. M. and King, J. M. et al., 2014. Transcriptomic analysis of tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis reveals activation of conserved vertebrate developmental and repair mechanisms. PLoS ONE, 9(8): e105004.
Kusumi, K. and Fisher, R. E., 2012. Studying mechanisms of regeneration in amphibian and reptilian vertebrate models. Anat Rec (Hoboken), 295(10): 1529-1531.
Higham, T. A., Russell, A. P. and Zani, P. A., 2013. Integrative Biology of Tail Autotomy in Lizards. Physiol Biochem Zool, 86(6): 603–610.
Arnold, E. N., 1984. Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and their relatives. J Nat Hist, 18(1): 127–169.
Capaldi, E. A. and Clause, A. R., 2006. Caudal autotomy and regeneration in lizards. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol, 305A(12): 965–973.
Cohn, P. J., 2009. Tail Loss in Lizards. BIOSCIENCE, 59(8): 728.
Cox, P. G., 1969. Some aspects of tail regeneration in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis I: A description based on histology and autoradiography. J Exp Zool, 171(2): 127–149.
King, R. S. and Newmark, P. A., 2012. The cell biology of regeneration. J Cell Biol, 196 (5): 553-562.
Alibardi, L., Celeghin, A. and Dalla, V. L., 2011. Wounding in lizards results in the release of β-defensins at the wound site and formation of an antimicrobial barrier. Dev Comp Immunol, 36(3): 557-565.
Alibardi, L., 2015. Immunolocalization indicates that both original and regenerated lizard tail tissues contain populations of long retaining cells, putative stem/progenitor cells. Microsc Res Tech, 78 (11): 1032-1045.
Egar, M., Simpson, S. B. and Singer, M., 1970. The growth and differentiation of the regenerating spinal cord of the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. J Morphol, 131(2): 131–151.
Fisher, R. E., Geiger, L. A., Stroik, L. K., Hutchins, E. D. and George, R.M. et al., 2012. A histological comparison of the original and regenerated tail in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. Anat Rec (Hoboken), 295(10): 1609–1619.
Alibardi, L., 2015. Original and regenerating lizard tail cartilage contain putative resident stem/progenitor cells. Micron, 78: 10-18.
Alibardi, L., Gibbons, J. and Simpson Jr, S., 1992. Fine structure of cells in the young regenerating spinal cord of the lizard Anolis carolinensis after H3-thymidine administration. Biol Struct Morphog, 4(2): 45-52.
Wu, P., Alibardi, L. and Chuong, C. M., 2014. Regeneration of reptilian scales after wounding: neogenesis, regional difference, and molecular modules. Regeneration (Oxf), 1(1): 15-26.
Alibardi, L., 2015. Immunolocalization of FGF7 (KGF) in the regenerating tail of lizard suggests it is involved in the differentiation of the epidermis. Acta Histochem, 117(8): 718-724.
Alibardi, L., 2015. Immunolocalization of large corneous β-proteins in the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) suggests that they form filaments that associate to the smaller β-proteins in the β layer of the epidermis. J Morphol, 276(10): 1244-1257.
Taylor, J. D. and Hadley, M. E., 1970. Chromatophores and color change in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Cell Tissue Res, 104(2): 282-294.
Hutchins, E. D., Eckalbar, W. L., Wolter, J.M., Mangone, M. and Kusumi, K., 2016. Differential expression of conserved and novel microRNAs during tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. BMC Genomics, 17: 339.
Markov, G. J., George, R., Emmert, N., Ammar, M., Eckalbar, W.L. and Wade, J. et al., 2010. Developmental gene activation in tail regeneration in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Dev Biol, 344: 519-520.
Bryant, S.V. and Bellairs, A.d’A., 1967. Tail regeneration in the lizards Anguis fragilis and Lacerta dugesii. Zool J Linnean Soc, 46(310): 297–305.
Cox, P.G., 1969. Some aspects of tail regeneration in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis II: The role of the peripheral nerves. J Exp Zool, 171(2): 151–159.
Alibardi, L., 2015. Regenerating tail muscles in lizard contain Fast but not Slow Myosin indicating that most myofibers belong to the fast twitch type for rapid contraction. Tissue Cell, 47(5): 533-540.
Lozito, T. P. and Tuan, R. S., 2014. Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog. Dev Biol, 399(2): 249-262.
Sanggaard, K. W., Danielsen, C. C., Wogensen, L., Vinding, M.S. and Rydtoft, L.M. et al., 2012. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy. PLoS ONE, 7(12): e51803.
Alibardi, L., 2015. Immunolocalization of the telomerase-1 component in cells of the regenerating tail, testis, and intestine of lizards. J Morphol, 276(7): 748-758.
Irschick, D. J., Vanhooydonck, B., Herrel, A. and Meyers, J., 2004. Intraspecific correlations among morphology, performance and habitat use within a green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) population. Biol J Linnean Soc, 85(2): 211–221.
Zani, P. A., 1996. Patterns of caudal-autotomy evolution in lizards. J Zool, 240(2): 201–220.
Gillis, G.B., Kuo, C.Y. and Irschick, D., 2013. The Impact of Tail Loss on Stability during Jumping in Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Physiol Biochem Zool, 86(6): 680–689.
Bonvini, L. A., 2007. Jumping behavior and the effects of caudal autotomy on performance in Anolis carolinensis. B. Sc. Honors, Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, USA.
Clark, D. R., 1971. Strategy of tail-autotomy in Ground Skink, Lygosoma laterale. J Exp Zool, 176(9): 295-302.
Bateman, P.W. and Fleming, P.A., 2009. To cut a long tail short: a review of lizard caudal autotomy studies carried out over the last 20 years. J Zool, 277(1): 1–14.
Gillis, G.B., Bonvini, L. A. and Irschick, D. J., 2009. Losing stability: tail loss and jumping in the arboreal lizard Anolis carolinensis. J Exp Biol, 212(5): 604–609.
Jagnandan, K., Russell, A. P. and Higham, T. E., 2014. Tail autotomy and subsequent regeneration alter the mechanics of locomotion in lizards. J Exp Biol, 217: 3891-3897.
Licht, P., 1967. Interaction of prolactin and gonadotropins on appetite, growth, and tail regeneration in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 9(1): 49-63.
Cai, S., Fu, X. and Sheng, Z., 2007. Dedifferentiation: A New Approach in Stem Cell Research. BIOSCIENCE, 57(8): 655-662.
Lin, G. and Slack, J. M. W., 2008. Requirement for Wnt and FGF signaling in Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration. Dev Biol, 316(2): 323–335.
Levin, M., 2009. Bioelectric mechanisms in regeneration: Unique aspects and future perspectives. Semin. Cell Dev Biol, 20 (5): 543-556.
Naora, Y., Kaneko, K., Hishida, Y., Fukazawa, T., Kunieda, T. and Kubo, T., 2010. Analysis of the mechanisms that determine tail regenerative ability in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Dev Biol, 344: 519.