Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2016, Pages: 40-48
Received: Apr. 21, 2017;
Published: Apr. 21, 2017
Views 1831 Downloads 85
Gaowa Sharen, Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College, Hohhot, China
Lidao Bao, Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College, Hohhot, China
Ruilian Ma, Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College, Hohhot, China
Yi Wang, Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical College, Hohhot, China
Excessive intake of fat in the diet is one of the main reasons leading to hyperlipidaemia, which will result in many diseases that endanger the human health. Puerarin, which is extracted from the dry roots of the legume plant Radix Puerariae, has been reported to be able to improve the regeneration capability of liver cells, recover the normal liver functions, and prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver. However, research on the regulation of blood lipids has never been referred. In this paper, decrease of the blood lipids in rats by puerarin and the underlying mechanism have been thoroughly discussed. Hyperlipidaemia models were established by feeding the rats with high-fat diet, to which puerarin (10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg) was then given continuously for 15 days by gavage, and blood indexes of the rats were tested and shown as follows: Puerarin could reduce the serum TC, TG and LDL-C values (P<0.05) and elevate the HDL-C values (P<0.05), which was thus demonstrated to exhibit significant hypolipidemic activity. Total RNA of the rat livers of the group treated with 400mg/kg of puerarin was extracted, and cDNA library was constructed utilizing mag-bind oligo (dT) enriched mRNA. Gene sequencing was carried out, the resulting data were assessed and their saturation was also analyzed. Besides, screening, cluster analysis of expression patterns, GO functional significant enrichment analysis and PATHWAY significant enrichment analysis for the differential gene expressions were performed. Gene expression profiling exhibited that 780 gene levels of the control and hyperlipidaemia model groups changed, in which 525 genes were up-regulated, and 255 genes were down-regulated. Meanwhile, 495 gene levels of the model group changed compared to those of the puerarin groups, in which 72 genes were up-regulated, 423 genes were down-regulated, and the number of the changed genes both involved was 163. Moreover, pathway of the fatty acid metabolism of the most significant enriched GO term was most closely related to the blood lipid metabolism in the differentially expressed genes. In this pathway, alcohol dehydrogenase 6 in the fatty alcohol cycle was down-regulated by puerarin. As a result, puerarin reduced the generation of fatty acids, regulated the entire fatty acid metabolism, and lowered the blood lipids eventually.
Hypolipidemic Effect of Puerarin and Underlying Mechanism Investigation, Cell Biology.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2016, pp. 40-48.
Chen H, Wang RJ, Ren JY, Wu B, Li LJ. [Effects of acute mixed hyperlipidemia on acute myocardial infarction size and its mechanism]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2008,40:258-261.
Aude-Rueda O, Aguilar-Nungaray G, Villa-Romero A, Cruz-Bautista I, Aguilar-Salinas CA. [The hyperlipidemia diagnosis based on phenotype]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2009,47:121-128.
Civeira F, Jarauta E, Cenarro A, Garcia-Otin AL, Tejedor D, Zambon D, et al. Frequency of low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations in patients with a clinical diagnosis of familial combined hyperlipidemia in a clinical setting. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008,52:1546-1553.
Qi H, Li L, Huang C, Li W, Wu C. Optimization and physicochemical characterization of thermosensitive poloxamer gel containing puerarin for ophthalmic use. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006,54:1500-1507.
Zhu YM, Ni C, Zhu L, Shen YL, Chen YY. [Effect and mechanism of puerarin on high glucose-induced hypo-responses in vascular contraction]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2011,27:62-65.
Wang Q, Xu X. [Progresses in research of hemolysis induced by puerarin injection]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2011,36:1402-1405.
Tian F, Xu LH, Zhao W, Tian LJ, Ji XL. The optimal therapeutic timing and mechanism of puerarin treatment of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011,134:892-896.
Nakamura K, Nishihata T, Jin JS, Ma CM, Komatsu K, Iwashima M, et al. The C-glucosyl bond of puerarin was cleaved hydrolytically by a human intestinal bacterium strain PUE to yield its aglycone daidzein and an intact glucose. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2011,59:23-27.
Lv Y, Hughes TC, Hao X, Mei D, Tan T. Preparation of monomeric and polymeric beta-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths for rapid isolation and purification of puerarin from Radix puerariae. J Sep Sci 2011.
Luo CF, Yuan M, Chen MS, Liu SM, Zhu L, Huang BY, et al. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and relative bioavailability of puerarin solid lipid nanoparticles following oral administration. Int J Pharm 2011,410:138-144.
Wilhelm BT, Briau M, Austin P, Faubert A, Boucher G, Chagnon P, et al. RNA-seq analysis of 2 closely related leukemia clones that differ in their self-renewal capacity. Blood 2011,117:e27-38.
Robertson G, Schein J, Chiu R, Corbett R, Field M, Jackman SD, et al. De novo assembly and analysis of RNA-seq data. Nat Methods 2010,7:909-912.
Srivastava S, Chen L. A two-parameter generalized Poisson model to improve the analysis of RNA-seq data. Nucleic Acids Res 2010,38:e170.
Tang F, Barbacioru C, Nordman E, Li B, Xu N, Bashkirov VI, et al. RNA-Seq analysis to capture the transcriptome landscape of a single cell. Nat Protoc 2010,5:516-535.
Gibbs RA, Weinstock GM, Metzker ML, Muzny DM, Sodergren EJ, et al.Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution.Nature 2004.428:493-521.
Jorgensen A, Faurby S, Hansen JG, Mobjerg N, Kristensen RM. Molecular phylogeny of Arthrotardigrada (Tardigrada). Mol Phylogenet Evol 2010,54:1006-1015.
Wang L, Si Y, Dedow LK, Shao Y, Liu P, Brutnell TP. A low-cost library construction protocol and data analysis pipeline for Illumina-based strand-specific multiplex RNA-seq. PLoS One 2011,6:e26426.
Li R., Yu C., Li Y., et al. SOAP2: An improved ultrafast tool for short read alignment. Bioinformatics.2009.25 (15). 1966-1967.
Mortazavi, A, B. A. Williams, et al. Mapping and quantifying mammalian transcriptomes by RNA-Seq. Nature Methods. 20085(7): 621-628.
Huang Sanwen, et al.The genome sequence of the domestic cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.). Nature genetics.2009.41:1275-1281.
Audic, S. and J. M. Claverie. The significance of digital gene expression profiles. Genome Res. 1997. 7(10): 986-95.
Linsen SE, de Wit E, de Bruijn E, Cuppen E. Small RNA expression and strain specificity in the rat. BMC Genomics 2010,11:249.
Van Craeyveld E, Gordts SC, Jacobs F, De Geest B. Correlation of atherosclerosis between different topographic sites is highly dependent on the type of hyperlipidemia. Heart Vessels 2011.
Wu GL, Chen J, Yu GY, Li JP, Lu WW. [Effect of puerarin on levels of TGF-beta1 and alpha-SMA in rats with alcoholic injury liver]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2008,33:2245-2249.
Luo CF, Yuan M, Chen MS, Liu SM, Ji H. Metabolites of puerarin identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: similar metabolic profiles in liver and intestine of rats. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010,878:363-370.
Banks WA, Farr SA, Morley JE. The effects of high fat diets on the blood-brain barrier transport of leptin: failure or adaptation? Physiol Behav 2006,88:244-248.
Turkina TI, Kartelishev AV. [Indices of transport of blood lipids and their spectrum in children based on fat tolerance test]. Pediatriia 1977:35-36.
Schulz H. Ultrastructure of the vessel wall in fat embolism and electron microscopy of fat phagocytosis and transport by blood platelets. Thromb Res 1974,4:suppl 1:59-60.
Akizuki E, Kimura Y, Nobuoka T, Imamura M, Nishidate T, Mizuguchi T, et al. Prospective nonrandomized comparison between pylorus-preserving and subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy from the perspectives of DGE occurrence and postoperative digestive functions. J Gastrointest Surg 2008,12:1185-1192.
Audic S, Claverie JM. The significance of digital gene expression profiles. Genome Res 1997,7:986-995.
Li Guoqing, et al.The YH database: the first Asian diploid genome database.Nucleic Acids Res.2009.37:1025-1028.
Mohammadi A, Saraee MH, Salehi M. Identification of disease-causing genes using microarray data mining and Gene Ontology. BMC Med Genomics 2011,4:12.
Larroy C, Fernandez MR, Gonzalez E, Pares X, Biosca JA. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YMR318C (ADH6) gene product as a broad specificity NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase: relevance in aldehyde reduction. Biochem J 2002,361:163-172.
Kono N, Arakawa K, Ogawa R, Kido N, Oshita K, Ikegami K, et al. Pathway projector: web-based zoomable pathway browser using KEGG atlas and Google Maps API. PLoS One 2009,4:e7710.
Marin C, Ramirez R, Delgado-Lista J, Yubero-Serrano EM, Perez-Martinez P, Carracedo J, et al. Mediterranean diet reduces endothelial damage and improves the regenerative capacity of endothelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2011,93:267-274.
JEAN-AIMÉ SIMONEAU, JACQUES. H. VEERKAMP,et al.Markers of capacity to utilize fatty acids in human skeletal muscle relation to insulin resistance and obesity and effects of weight loss.The FASEB Journal.1999;13:2051-2060.
Rizzo WB, Craft DA, Somer T, Carney G, Trafrova J, Simon M. Abnormal fatty alcohol metabolism in cultured keratinocytes from patients with Sjogren-Larsson syndrome. J Lipid Res 2008,49:410-419.
Buti L, Spooner E, Van der Veen AG, Rappuoli R, Covacci A, Ploegh HL. Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) subverts the apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP2) tumor suppressor pathway of the host. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011,108:9238-9243.