Effects of Nicotine and Sodium Bicarbonate on Blood Parameters of Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Cell Biology
Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 33-37
Received: May 3, 2017; Accepted: May 17, 2017; Published: Jul. 6, 2017
Views 2414      Downloads 198
Author
Angela Nwogor Ufele, Zoology Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
In this study, the effects of nicotine and sodium bicarbonate on some blood parameters of male albino rats were investigated. Seventy five albino rats of 90 days old and average body weight of 190g were used. These animals were randomly selected into five groups, A, B, C, D, and E of five rats each. This experiment was replicated three times. Group A was the control group and they were given normal saline. Group B was treated with only nicotine of 0.5ml of 1g/100ml while other groups, C, D, and E received this same concentration of nicotine but with varying concentration levels of (1ml, 2ml, and 3ml of 2g/100ml) of sodium bicarbonate respectively. The treatments were administered orally using gastrointestinal cannular for four weeks. The result showed elevations of serum level in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the entire treated groups but there was no significant difference, when compared with the control. There was significant difference (P < 0.05) in WBC of group B when compared with the control group, and the value obtained from group A was 10.6 x 103 ± 333 cells mm-3, while 4.4 x 103 ± 333 cells mm-3 was obtained from group B. There was also significant difference in RBC value of group B, ( P < 0.05) when compared with the control group, and the value obtained from group A, the control group was 10.6x106±620 cells mm-3 while 4.6 x106 ± 340 cells mm-3 was obtained from group B. Also, there was significant difference in PCV mean values of group B, C, and D, (P < 0.05) when compared with the control group. The value obtained from group A, the control group was 42 ± 0.5 % while 27.3 ± 1.7 %, 35 ± 1.5 %, and 36 ± 2.3 % were obtained from group B, C, and D respectively. Generally, effects of nicotine were much in group B that received 0.5ml of nicotine without sodium bicarbonate, and these effects decreased as concentration of sodium bicarbonate increased in other groups with fixed concentration of nicotine.
Keywords
Albino Rats, Nicotine, Sodium Bicarbonate and Blood Parameters
To cite this article
Angela Nwogor Ufele, Effects of Nicotine and Sodium Bicarbonate on Blood Parameters of Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Cell Biology. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 33-37. doi: 10.11648/j.cb.20170504.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Abel, E. L. (2003). Effect of Marihvana, Tobacco, and Alcohol on Reproduction. Lagos: Malthouse Press Ltd Pp. 556.
[2]
Baker, J. T, and Fergusson M. N. (1998) Metabolism of sodium bicarbonate. Nigeria Journal of Clinical Therapy, 70 (9):4-20.
[3]
Bardy A, Dollery C, Houseman T, Lewis P. J, Turner D. (2002). Absorption of nicotine from cigarettes. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapy, 23(2):143–151.
[4]
Benowitz, N. L. Williams, J. J., Louis, N. (2005). Influence of nicotine and cigarette smoking on hormones. Journal of Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 36(1): 74-81.
[5]
Benowitz, N. L., (2004). Nicotine metabolic profile in man. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapy, 372(9):390-400.
[6]
Benowitz, NL, Porchet, H, Sheiner, L. Jacob, P., (2001). Nicotine absorption and cardiovascular effects with smokeless tobacco use: composition with cigarettes and nicotine gum. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapy, 237(9):390-400.
[7]
Birobaun, M. T and Sidney T. J. (2004) effects of watercress consumption on uninary metabolite of nicotine in smokers. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarker Preview. 8(10): 907-913.
[8]
Economides, N. L. and Braithwaite J. N. (2004) Clinical Pharmacology of inhaled drugs of abuse: implications in understanding nicotine dependence. American Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 99: 12–29.
[9]
Familusi, J. B and Smallwood R. A (2004). Neonatal hepatic drug elimination. Nigeria Journal of pharmacological Toxicology 55(9): 639-643.
[10]
Fergusson, M. J. (2001). Metabolism of nicotine to cotinine studied by a dual stable Isotope method. Journal of Clinical Pharmcology Therapy. 55(5):483-493.
[11]
Halliwell, B. (2003): Free radicals and vascular diseases: How much do we know? Nigerian Medical Journal, 307-885.
[12]
Hughes, P. (2002). 3rd Daily intake of nicotine during cigarette smoking. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapy, 35(4):499–504.
[13]
Jackson, M. P. (1998). Relationship between nicotine and sodium bicarbonate in pregnant smokers. Journal of Pharmacology Therapy, 301(2):594–598.
[14]
Kaffman, J. P. (1999). 3rd Nicotine renal excretion rate influences nicotine intake during cigarette smoking. Journal of Pharmacology Therapy, 234(1):153–155.
[15]
Karmen, J. P (1995). The benefits of stopping smoking and the role of nicotine replacement therapy in other patients. Journals of Pharmacology Therapy, 70(8):10-25.
[16]
Mavitz, B. C and Benowitz, N. L (2004). Arteriorenous differences in plasma concentration of nicotine and cotecholamines and related cardiovascular effect after smoking. Clinical Pharmacology of Toxicology; 88(1):3-15.
[17]
Rose V. A (2002). Cotinine as a biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Epidemiology Review; 18(2): 188–204.
[18]
Seller, M. J. and Brait, K. S. (2001). Biometric Approach. Effects of tobacco smoke inhalation on the developing mouse embryo and fetus reproduction. India Press Pp. 103-206.
[19]
Sidney, A (1993). Is the hair nicotine level a more accurate biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure than urine cotinine? Journal of Epidemiology Community Health.56 (1):66–71.
[20]
Wash, R. A. (2004). Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the hepatic and renal elimination of nicotine in humans. European Journal Clinical Pharmacology; 38(2):165–169.
[21]
Weisberg, J. P. (2005). The effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on early infant lungs functions. African Clinical Journal, 4:8-20.
[22]
Weitzman, S. (2002) activity in healthy subjects. European Journal Clinical Pharmacology, 64:283–292.
[23]
William, A. C., and George, W. S. (2008). Statistical Methods, 6th Ed., The Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa, USA. Pp. 167-263.
[24]
Zimmerman, U. E. (1999). Biometric Approach. Use of sodium bicarbonate to control nicotine effects. Ghana Academic Press; Pp 103-153.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186