Pregnancy Specific Beta-1 Glycoprotein, Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Eclampsia in Kaduna State, Nigeria
International Journal of Immunology
Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 5-11
Received: Mar. 25, 2019;
Accepted: May 5, 2019;
Published: Jun. 12, 2019
Views 409 Downloads 91
Jim Monday Banda, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Geoffrey Chukwubuike Onyemelukwe, Department of Medicine, Immunology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
Bolanle O. Patricia Musa, Department of Medicine, Immunology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
Sunday Oladapo Shittu, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
Eclampsia (EC), a human pregnancy–specific-syndrome is the life-threatening occurrence of convulsion (s) in association with signs of preeclampsia (hypertension and proteinura). Eclampsia has remained a significant public health threat, contributing to maternal and prerinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. However, the pathogenic mechanism of the disease is not fully understood. Disturbance of the cytokine equilibrium has been accused for many pathological disorders including EC. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the maternal cytokines and pregnancy specific beta-1 glycoprotein in EC and compared results with those of normal healthy pregnant controls. Enzyme linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure levels ofpro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor necrosis [TNF]-α, and interleukin [IL] -2), anti-inflammatory cytokines [IL-4 and IL-10] and pregnancy specific beta-1 glycoprotein (PSG-1) in the peripheral blood of patients with EC (n=38), normal healthy pregnant women [PC] (n=25) and compared withhealthy non pregnant women controls [NPC] (n=25). Women with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infections were excluded from the study. The overall results (Mean ±SD) were: TNF-α (2.34 ±0.13 pg/ml) in EC was significantly higher than the mean values (2.25±0.07pg/ml and 2.24±0.10 pg/ml) in PC and NPC respectively. Furthermore, EC had higher TNF-α mean value compared with NPC (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in mean IL-2 value between EC (1.69±0.17 Pg/ml), PC (1.71±0.0.09Pg/ml) and NPC (1.72±0.13Pg/ml) (P>0.05). The mean value of IL-10 was noted to be lower in EC (1.28±0.54Pg/ml) compared with: PC (1.58±0.61 Pg/ml) and NPC (2.06±0.08Pg/ml). No significant difference in IL-4 mean value exist between EC (2.45±0.10 Pg/ml) and NPC (2.45 Pg/ml) (P>0.05) but significant difference exist between EC and NPC (2.40±0.0 6Pg/ml) (P<0.05). The serum PSG-1 levels in EC (2.5±0.11 Pg/ml) and PC (2.5±0.03 Pg/ml) were similar and significantly higher than in NPC (0.06±0.020 Pg/ml) P<0.05. While a pro-inflammatory cytokine environment was demonstrated in EC, and decreased anti-inflammatory reactivity, EC was not associated with low levels of PSG-1. Further research is advocated to discover how anti-inflammatory cytokines could be exploited as a therapeutic agent for women at high risk of EC.
Jim Monday Banda,
Geoffrey Chukwubuike Onyemelukwe,
Bolanle O. Patricia Musa,
Sunday Oladapo Shittu,
Pregnancy Specific Beta-1 Glycoprotein, Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Eclampsia in Kaduna State, Nigeria, International Journal of Immunology.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 5-11.
Duley, L. (2009). The global impact of preeclampsia and eclampisa,’Seminars in perinatology, 33 (3): 130-137.
Ghulmiyyah, L. and Sibai, B. (2012).’’Maternal mortality from preeclampsia and eclampsia’’, Seminars in perinatology, 36 (1): 56-59.
Sibai, B. M. (1998). Prevention of eclampsia: A big disappointment. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 179-1275.
WHO (2011). Recommendations for Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia, WHO Department of Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO (2004). Coverage of Maternity Care: A Listing of Available Information, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Mosmann, T. R. and Sad, S. (1996). ‘The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more’ Immunology today, 17 (3): 138-146.
Piccini, M. P. (2010). Tcell tolerance towards the fetal allograft. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 35: 71-75.
Charlton, B. and Lafferty, K. J. (1995). The Th1/Th2 balance in autoimmunity. Current Opinion in Immunology, 7: 793–798.
Blanchon, L. Bocco, J. L. Gallot, D. Gachon, A. Lemery, D. Dechelotte, P. Dastugue, B. and Sapin, V. (2001). Co-localization of KLF6 and KLF4 with pregnancy-specific glycoproteins during human placenta development. Mechanism of Development, 105: 185-189.
Sacks, G. Sargent, I. Redman, C. (1999), An innate view of human pregnancy. Immunology Today, 20: 114-118.
Blois, S. M. Sulkowski, M, Tirado-Gonzalez, I. Warren, J. Freitag, N. Klabb, B. F. Rifkin, D. Fuss, I. Strober, Wand Dveksler, G. S. (2014). Pregnancy Specific beta-1 activates Transformation Growth Factor beta-1 and prevent dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice. Mucosal Immunology, 7: 348-358.
Harris, S. J, Anthony, F. W. Jones, D. B. and Masson, G. M. (1984) Pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein: effect on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 6: 267–270
Ramsy, J. E. Jamieson, N. Greer, J. A. and Sasar, N. (2003). Paradoxical elevation of adeponectin concentration in women preeclampsia. Hypertension, 42: 891-4.
Teran, E. Escudero, C. Moya, W. Flores, M. Vallance, P. Lopez-Jaramillo, P. (2001). Elevated C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Andean women with preeclampsia. International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 75: 243-249.
Pathare, A, Al Kindi, S, Alnaqdy, A, Daar, S, Knox- Macauly, H. and Dennison, D. (2004) Cytokine profile of sickle cell disease in Oman. American Journal of Hematology, 77: 323-328.
Musa, B. Onyemelukwe, G. Olatunji, O. Odogwu, K. Hambolu, J. and Kene, T. (2012). Serum cytokine levels and T lymphocytes subsets in pregnant women with eclampsia. Open Journal of Immunology, 2: 116-124.
Anim-Nyame, N. Gamble, J. Sooranna, S. R. Johnson, M. R. and Steer, P. J. (2003). Microvascular permeability is related to circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor –alpha in preeclampsia. Cardiovascular Research, 58: 162-169.
Redman, C. W. Sacks, G. P. Sargent I. L. (1999). Preeclampsia: an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 180: 499-506.
Daher, S. Fonseca, F. Ribeiro, O. G. Musatti, C. C. and Gerbase –Delima M. (1999). Tumor necrosis factor alpha during pregnancy and at the onset of labor and spontaneous abortion. European Journal of Obstretrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 83. 77-79.
Peracoli, J. C. Rudge, M. V. C. Perac, M. T. S. (2007). Tumor necrosis factor alpha in gestation and puerperiumwomen in gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 57: 177-185.
Banda, J. M. Onyemelukwe, G. C. Musa, B. O. P. Shittu, S, O. Babadoko, A, A. Bakari A. G. Mammam A. I. Sarkin-Pawa, A. and Junaid, S. A. (016). T lymphocyte subpopulations in normal pregnancies and those complicated by eclampsia in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Open journal of Immunology. http://www.scrip.org/journal/oji http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/orji.2016.63010. 6:93-100.
Vince, G. S. Starkey, P. M. Austigulen, R. Kwiatkowski, D. and Redman, C. W. G. (1995). IL-6, Tumor necrosis factor alpha and soluble TNF receptor in women with preeclampsia. British Journal of Obstetrics. and Gynecology, 102 (1): 20-25.
Onyemelukwe, G. C. Ekwempu, C. C. and Alexander, L. C. (1985). Pregnancy specific glycoprotein (PSG1) in normal pregnancy in Nigeria. Internal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 23: 347-349.
Silver, R. M. Heyborne, K. D. Leslie, K. K. (1993). Pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoprotein (SP-1) in maternal serum and ammiotic fluid; pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age fetus and fetal distress. Placenta, 14: 583-5.
Tamsen, L. Johansson, S. G. Axelsson, O. (1983) Pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1) in serum from women with pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth retardation. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 11, 19-25.
Arnold, L. L. Doherty, T. M. Flor, A. W. Simon, J. A. Chou, J. Y. Chan, W. Y. and Mansfield, B. C. (1999). Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein gene expression in recurrent aborters: a potential correlation to interleukin-10 expression. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 41: 174-182.