Challenges of the Control of Opportunistic Infections of Zoonotic Origin in HIV/AIDS Patients
International Journal of Immunology
Volume 3, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 1-7
Received: Jan. 14, 2015; Accepted: Jan. 19, 2015; Published: Feb. 7, 2015
Views 3226      Downloads 161
Authors
Yemisi Olukemi Adesiji, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Julius Kola Oloke, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, All Saint University, Belair, Kingstown, St Vincent & Grenadines
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is associated with a number of opportunistic infections of immunocompromised person. Some of these infections are recognized zoonoses that are naturally transmitted between animals and humans. These may be directly transmitted by, animals or indirectly by contact with contaminated food and water. Interactions between animals and humans have a complex interplay and health care providers should be aware of the potential role of animals as reservoirs of infectious diseases for HIV infected patients. The most frequent pattern of infection is characterized either by direct contact with farm or wild animals and/or ingestion of their products. Immunomodulatory antibodies that enhance the immune system to promote the function of immune cells have great promise in preventing and treating opportunistic infections of zoonotic origin in HIV/AIDS patient.
Keywords
Zoonosis, HIV/AIDs, Immunosuppression, Immunomodulatory Antibodies, Epidemiology
To cite this article
Yemisi Olukemi Adesiji, Julius Kola Oloke, Challenges of the Control of Opportunistic Infections of Zoonotic Origin in HIV/AIDS Patients, International Journal of Immunology. Special Issue: Immunotherapy. Vol. 3, No. 2-1, 2015, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.iji.s.2015030201.11
References
[1]
UNAID “HIV and AIDS estimates”. http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/nigeria, 2013
[2]
S.F. Altekruse, D.L. Swerdlow. “The changing epidemiology of food borne diseases” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 311 (1): 23-29, 1996.
[3]
S. Grant, C.W. Olsen. “Preventing zoonotic diseases in immunocompromised Persons: The Role of Physicians and Veterinarians” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5: (1), 1999.
[4]
S.U. Ugbomoiko, L. Ariza, J. Heukelbach. “Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owner” BMC Veterinary Research, 4:49, 2008.
[5]
Y.O. Adesiji, A.H. Fagbami. “Epidemiology of Bacterial Zoonosis in Nigeria” Nig. J. Hlth & Biomed. Sci. 5: 20-25, 2006.
[6]
WHO, UNAIDS & UNICEF. “Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector” Federal Ministry of Health Technical Report on the National HIV/Syphilis Sero-prevalence Sentinel Survey Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria. Department of Public Health National AIDS/STI Control Programme; Abuja, Nigeria. 2010.
[7]
O. Cosivi, J.M. Grange, C.J. Daborn et al. ”Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries” Emerg Inf Dis; 4: 59–70, 1998.
[8]
C.O. Thoen, J.H. Steele. “Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and humans” In Steele, J.H., Eds Arnes, IA: Iowa State University Press; 355 pp. 1995.
[9]
ANON. “Zoonotic tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis): a memorandum from WHO (with participation of FAO)”. Bull World Health Organ 72: 851–857, 1994.
[10]
W.Y. Ayele, S.D. Neill, J. ZINSSTAG, et al. “Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa” The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 8 (14):924-937, 2004.
[11]
A.L. Michel, B. Muller, P.D. Van Helden. “Mycobacterium bovis at the animal–human interface: A problem, or not?” Vet.Microbiol. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.08.029 2009 (http://www.who.int/zoonoses/Report-Sept06.pdf).
[12]
P. Pasquali. “Food Agriculture Organisation-Animal Production and Health. HIV Infections And Zoonoses” Isitituto Superiore di Sanità Rome, Chief, Publishing Management Service, Information Division, FAO;Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. ISBN 92-5-105169-0
[13]
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION –WHO. “Global tuberculosis control-surveillance, planning, financing” WHO report. 2008.
[14]
A. Ani, S. Okpe, M. Akambi.et al. “Comparison of a DNA based PCR method with conventional methods for the detection of M. tuberculosis in Jos, Nigeria” The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries; 3:470-475 2009.
[15]
S.I.B. Cadmus, S. Palmer, M. Okker et al. “Molecular Analysis of Human and Bovine Tubercle Bacilli from a Local Setting in Nigeria” Journal of Clinical Microbiology; 44:29-34, 2006.
[16]
S. Ibrahim, C.A. Agada, J.U. Umoh, et al. “Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Jigawa State, Northwestern Nigeria” Tropical Animal Health and Production. 42(7):1333-1335, 2010.
[17]
S.I.B. Cadmus, M.K. Yakubu, A.A. Magaji, et al. “Mycobacterium bovis, but also M. africanum present in raw milk of pastoral cattle in north-central Nigeria” Trop Anim Health Prod.; DOI 10.1007/s11250-010-9533-2 2010.
[18]
D. Ojo, C. Mafiana, A. Adeniran-Sonola “Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infections in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria” Nigerian Journal of Parasitology; 28(1):39-43, 2007.
[19]
G. Pennap, J. Giyan, A. Eleboda. “Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Keffi and its environs” Indian Journal of Microbiology; 49:233-236, 2009.
[20]
O.A.T. Alli, D.O. Ogbolu, M.A. Salawu et al. “Molecular Identification And Prevalence Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Amongst People Living With HIV In Osun State, Nigeria” Afr J. Clin Exper Microbiol; 11(3)138-145, 2010.
[21]
O.A. Jenkins, S.I.B. Cadmus, E.H. Venter et al. “Molecular epidemiology of human and animal tuberculosis in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria” Vet Microbiology: doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.02.037 2011.
[22]
C.A. Glaser, F. J. Angulo, J.A. Rooney. “Animal-Associated Opportunistic Infections among Persons Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency” Virus. Clin Infect Dis. 18:14-24, 1994.
[23]
A.O. Coker, R.D. Isokpehi, B.N. Thomas et al. “Zoonotic infections in Nigeria: Overview from a medical perspective” Acta Tropica; 76: 59-63. 2000
[24]
R.A. Oberhelman, D.N. Taylor, “Campylobacter infections in developing countries”. In I. Nachamkin & M.J. Blaser, eds. Campylobacter, 2nd edition, pp.139–153. Washington, DC, American Society for Microbiology. 2000.
[25]
M.R. Rao, A.B. Naficy, S.J. Savarino et al. “Pathogenicity and convalescent excretion of Campylobacter in rural Egyptian children” American Journal of Epidemiology; 54: 166–173, 2001.
[26]
W.A. Ellis, S.D, Neil, JJ O’Brien J.J, HW Ferguson, and J. Hanna, J. “Isolation of Spirillum/Vibrio-like organisms from bovine fetuses, ” Vet. Records, 100:451–452, 1977
[27]
Y.O. Adesiji, A.O. Coker, J.K. Oloke . “Detection of Arcobacters in feces of healthy chickens in Osogbo” Nigeria. Journal of Food Protection, 74(1): 119 – 129, 2011
[28]
Y.O. Adesiji YO, J. K. Oloke . “ Detection of Arcobacters from faeces of healthy pigs in Osogbo, South Western-Nigeria” Tropical Veterinarian, 27(1): 28 – 35, 2009
[29]
O. Vandenberg , A. Dediste, K. Houf , S. Ibekwem , H. Souayah , C. Sammy , N. Douat G. Zissis, J.P. Butzler, and P. Vandamme . “ Arcobacter Species in Humans” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2004: 10 10,
[30]
H. Kownhar , E.M. Shankar, R. Rajan, A. Vengatesan , U.A Rao . “Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and enteric bacterial pathogens among hospitalized HIV infected versus non-HIV infected patients with diarrhoea in southern India”. Scand J Infect Dis. 39(10):862-6, 2007
[31]
W.C. Levine, J.W. Buehler, N.H. Bean, R.V. Tauxe. “Epidemiology of nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia during the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic” J Infect Dis.; 164(1):81-87, 1991.
[32]
E.L. Hohmann. “Nontyphoidal salmonellosis” Clinical Infectious Diseases; 32: 263–269, 2001.
[33]
CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL-CDC. “Common source outbreak of Giardiasis – New Mexico” Morbility and Mortality (Weekly Report Weekly Report. 38(23):405–407, 1989.
[34]
S. Kariuki, C. Gilks, J. Corkill. “Multi-drug resistant non-typhoid Salmonella in Kenya” J Antimicrob Chemother; 38: 425–34, 1996.
[35]
A. Adeleye, S. Smith, S. Akanmu et al. “Chromosomally mediated antibiotic resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonellae isolated from HIV patients in Lagos” West Indian med. 57 no.5, 2008.
[36]
D.T. John, W. A. Petri. “Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology” 9th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Inc. 2006.
[37]
J.S. Remington, G. Desmonts. “Toxoplasmosis” In J.S. Remington & J.O. Klein, eds. Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant, 3rd Edition, pp. 89–195.Philadelphia, USA, WB Saunders. 1990.
[38]
J.G. Montoya, J.S. Remington. “Toxoplasmosis” In G.L. Mandell, J.E. Bennett & R. Dolin, eds. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. pp. 2858–2888. Philadelphia, USA, Churchill Livingstone. 2000
[39]
G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennett, R. Dolin. “Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases” 6th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, An Imprint of Elsevier. 2005.
[40]
B.S. Ishaku, I. Ajogi, J.U. Umoh et al. “Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma Gondii Infection among Antenatal Women in Zaria, Nigeria” Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences; 4(2): 483-488, 2009.
[41]
J. Kamani, A.U. Mani, H.A. Kumshe et al. “|Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cats in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria” Acta Parasitologica 55(1): 94-95, 2010.
[42]
F.A. Akinbo, C.E. Okaka, R.L. Danta “Isosporiasis in HIV/AIDS Patients in Edo State, Nigeria” Malaysian Journal of Medical Science. 16(3): 44, 2009.
[43]
F.A. Akinbo, C.E. Okaka, R. Omoregie. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria” .Libyan J Med; 5: 5506, 2010.
[44]
M. Okodua, O.A. Adeyeba, Y.M. Talfeng et al. “Age and sex distribution of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV infected subjects in Abeokuta, Nigeria” Online J Health Allied Sci.; 4: 3–5, 2003.
[45]
Y.O. Adesiji, R. Lawal, S.S. Taiwo et al. “Cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected patients with diarrhea in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria” Eur J Gen Med. 4: 119–22, 2007.
[46]
S.K. Babatunde, A.K. Salami, J.P. Fabiyi et al. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and seronegative patients in Ilorin, Nigeria” Ann Afr Med. 9:123-8, 2010.
[47]
R.S. Barwick, D.A. Levy, G.F. Braun et al. “Surveillance for water-borne disease outbreak – United States 1997–1998” Morbility and Mortality (Weekly Report), 49 (SS-4): 1–36. 2000.
[48]
E.D. Mintz, M. Hudson-Wragg, P. Mshar et al. “Foodborne giardiasis in a corporate office setting. Journal of Infectious Diseases; 67: 250–253, 1993.
[49]
G. Halemariam, A. Kasu, G. Abebe et al. “Intestinal Parasitic infection in HIV/AIDs and HIV Seronegative individual in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia” Jpn J infect Ds. 57:41-43, 2004.
[50]
G. Feitosa, A.C. Bandeira, D.P. Sampaio et al. “High prevalence of Giardiasis and Strongyloidiasis among HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil” Braz J Infect Dis 5 :6, 2001.
[51]
D. Fraser, N. Bilenko, R.J. Deckelbaum et al. “Giardia lamblia carriage in Israeli Bedouin infants: risk factors and consequences” Clinical Infectious Diseases; 30: 419–424, 2000.
[52]
R.D. Adam, “Biology of Giardia lamblia” Clinical and Microbiology Reviews; 14:447–75, 2001.
[53]
N.E. Hahn, C.A. Glaser, D.W. Hird et al. “Prevalence of Giardia in the faeces of pups” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association; 192: 1428–1429, 1988.
[54]
T.J. Sykes, M.T. Fox. “Patterns of infection with Giardia in dogs in London” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 83: 239–240. 1989.
[55]
A.S. Saidu, M.D. Bunza, A.U. Abubakar, et al. “A survey of opportunistic infections in HIV seropositive patients attending major hospitals of kebbi state, Nigeria” Bayero journal of pure and applied sciences. 2(1): 70 – 74, 2010.
[56]
F.O. Akinbo, C.E. Okaka, R. Richard. “Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria” Libyan J Med, 5: 5506, 2010.
[57]
R. Weber, R.T. Bryan, D.A. Schwartz et al. “Human microsporidial infections” Clin Microbiol Rev. 74:426-61, 1994.
[58]
J.A. Shadduck “Human Microsporidiosis and Aids” Rev Infect Dis; 11:203-207, 1989.
[59]
E.U. Canning. “Microsporidia”. In J.P. Kreier, ed. Parasitic protozoa, 2nd Edition, l6: 299–370. San Diego, USA, Academic Press. Center for Disease Control. 1989.
[60]
I.C.J. Omalu, A.B. Yako, D.D. Duhlinska et al. “First detection of intestinal microsporidia in Nigeria” Online J Health All Sci.; 3: 4, 2005.
[61]
I.C.J. Omalu, D.D. Duhlinska, G.I. Anyanwu et al. “seroprevalence of Microsporidiosis in Immunocompromised Patients in Kano-Nigeria” The Internet Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 8:1, 2007.
[62]
D. Park, H. Qin, S. Jain et al. “Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in Patients Coinfected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus” Clin Infect Dis. 51 (11): 1343-1346. 2010.
[63]
S. Smith, N. Otuonye, E. Omonigbehin, “Prevalence Of Compylobacter Species Amongst HIV/AIDS Patients In Nigeria” Retrovirology, 2(1): 76, 2005.
[64]
M.A. Gordon, A.M.K. Kankwatira, G. Mwafulirwa et al. “Invasive Non-typhoid Salmonellae Establish Systemic Intracellular Infection in HIV-Infected Adults: An Emerging Disease Pathogenesis” Clin Infect Dis. 50 (7): 953-962, 2010. O. Falusi, A.L. French, E.C. Seaberg et al. “Prevalence and Predictors of Toxoplasma Seropositivity in Women with and at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection” Clin Infect Dis. 35 (11): 1414-1417, 2002.
[65]
S.V. Kulkarni, R. Kairon, S.S. Sane et al. Opportunistic parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients presenting with diarrhoea by the level of immunesuppression. Indian J Med Res.130 (1): 63-6, 2009.
[66]
R. A Weiss, “immunotherapy for HIV Infection” N Engl J Med, 370:379-380, 2014
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186