Pregnancy Specific Beta-1 Glycoprotein, Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Eclampsia in Kaduna State, Nigeria
International Journal of Immunology
Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 5-11
Received: Mar. 25, 2019;
Accepted: May 5, 2019;
Published: Jun. 12, 2019
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Jim Monday Banda, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Geoffrey Chukwubuike Onyemelukwe, Department of Medicine, Immunology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
Bolanle O. Patricia Musa, Department of Medicine, Immunology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
Sunday Oladapo Shittu, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
Eclampsia (EC), a human pregnancy–specific-syndrome is the life-threatening occurrence of convulsion (s) in association with signs of preeclampsia (hypertension and proteinura). Eclampsia has remained a significant public health threat, contributing to maternal and prerinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. However, the pathogenic mechanism of the disease is not fully understood. Disturbance of the cytokine equilibrium has been accused for many pathological disorders including EC. Thus the aim of this study was to analyze the maternal cytokines and pregnancy specific beta-1 glycoprotein in EC and compared results with those of normal healthy pregnant controls. Enzyme linkedimmunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure levels ofpro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor necrosis [TNF]-α, and interleukin [IL] -2), anti-inflammatory cytokines [IL-4 and IL-10] and pregnancy specific beta-1 glycoprotein (PSG-1) in the peripheral blood of patients with EC (n=38), normal healthy pregnant women [PC] (n=25) and compared withhealthy non pregnant women controls [NPC] (n=25). Women with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infections were excluded from the study. The overall results (Mean ±SD) were: TNF-α (2.34 ±0.13 pg/ml) in EC was significantly higher than the mean values (2.25±0.07pg/ml and 2.24±0.10 pg/ml) in PC and NPC respectively. Furthermore, EC had higher TNF-α mean value compared with NPC (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in mean IL-2 value between EC (1.69±0.17 Pg/ml), PC (1.71±0.0.09Pg/ml) and NPC (1.72±0.13Pg/ml) (P>0.05). The mean value of IL-10 was noted to be lower in EC (1.28±0.54Pg/ml) compared with: PC (1.58±0.61 Pg/ml) and NPC (2.06±0.08Pg/ml). No significant difference in IL-4 mean value exist between EC (2.45±0.10 Pg/ml) and NPC (2.45 Pg/ml) (P>0.05) but significant difference exist between EC and NPC (2.40±0.0 6Pg/ml) (P<0.05). The serum PSG-1 levels in EC (2.5±0.11 Pg/ml) and PC (2.5±0.03 Pg/ml) were similar and significantly higher than in NPC (0.06±0.020 Pg/ml) P<0.05. While a pro-inflammatory cytokine environment was demonstrated in EC, and decreased anti-inflammatory reactivity, EC was not associated with low levels of PSG-1. Further research is advocated to discover how anti-inflammatory cytokines could be exploited as a therapeutic agent for women at high risk of EC.
Jim Monday Banda,
Geoffrey Chukwubuike Onyemelukwe,
Bolanle O. Patricia Musa,
Sunday Oladapo Shittu,
Pregnancy Specific Beta-1 Glycoprotein, Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Eclampsia in Kaduna State, Nigeria, International Journal of Immunology.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 5-11.
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