Genetic Assessment of the Shrub Syncepalum dulcificum (SCHUMACH & THONN.) Daniell in Nigeria Using the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
International Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 45-50
Received: Dec. 27, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 7, 2017; Published: Jan. 24, 2017
Views 3093      Downloads 98
Iloh Andrew Chibuzor, Biodiversity and Climate Research Laboratory, Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre (BARC), Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria
Orosun Bukola, Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Akinyele Olukemi Adejoke, Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Onyenekwe Paul Chidozie, Biodiversity and Climate Research Laboratory, Biotechnology Advanced Research Centre (BARC), Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
In order to advocate for informed management decisions with regards to endangered species, we assessed genetic diversity and genetic structure in 40 individuals of six natural populations of the shrub Syncepalum dulcificum (SCHUMACH & THONN.) DANIELL growing in South Western Nigeria. Twelve (12) Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were tested on total genomic DNA extracted from silica gel dried leaves. Bands were then scored for reproducibility and scoring error calculated. Several genetic diversity parameters were then tested using the POPGENE v1.32 software. Five (5) primers produced 227 reproducible and clear RAPD bands of which 47 were polymorphic (20.7%). The percentage of polymorphic loci (PPI) within populations ranged from 36% to 68%. Nei’s gene diversity among population (Hs) was 0.03, while at species level (Ht) was 0.18. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) among populations was estimated to be 0.83 with a gene flow rate (Nm) of 2.49 showing high genetic diversity within and among populations. The results however indicate a high similarity between the populations as well as close genetic relationship among them. We infer that S. dulcificum in Nigeria does not represent a genetically diverse population and this may be accounted for due the plant’s its breeding system which is mainly autogamous. This study further suggests an in-situ form of conservation be set up as immediate rescue conservation procedure for the plant.
DNA Markers, Genetic Diversity, RAPD, Syncepalum dulcificum
To cite this article
Iloh Andrew Chibuzor, Orosun Bukola, Akinyele Olukemi Adejoke, Onyenekwe Paul Chidozie, Genetic Assessment of the Shrub Syncepalum dulcificum (SCHUMACH & THONN.) Daniell in Nigeria Using the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), International Journal of Genetics and Genomics. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2016, pp. 45-50. doi: 10.11648/j.ijgg.20160406.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Godbout, J., Jaramillo-Correa, J. P., Beaulieu, J. and Bousquet, J. (2005). A mitochondrial DNA minisatellite reveals the postglacial history of jack pine (Pinus banksiana), a broad-range North American conifer. Molecular Ecology, 14: 3497–3512.
Jackson, S. T. (2006). Forest genetics in space and time. New Phytology, 171 (1): 1-3.
Magri, D., Vendramin, G. G., Comps, B., Dupanloup, I., Geburek, T., Gomory, D., Latalowa, M., Litt, T., Paule, L., Roure, J. M., Tantau, I., Knaap, W. O., Petit, R. J. and Beaulieu, J. L. (2006). A new scenario for the Quaternary history of European beech population: Paleobotanical evidence and genetic consequences. New Phytology, 171: 199-221.
Petit, R. J., Bialozyt, R., Garnier-Gere, P. and Hampe, A. (2004). Ecology and genetics of tree invasions: from recent introductions to Quaternary migrations. Forest Ecological Management, 197: 117–137.
Richardson, B. A., Brunsfeild, S. J. and Klofenstein, N. B. (2002). DNA from bird-dispersed seed and wind disseminated pollens provides insights into postglacial colonization of white-bark pine (Pinusal bicaulis) Molecular Ecology, 11: 215-227.
Qiu, Y. X. and Fu, C. X. (2001). Studies on the endangerment mechanism of and conservation strategies for Changium smyrnioides. China Biodiversity, 9: 151-156.
Keay, R. W. J. (1992). Trees of Nigeria. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Opeke, I. K. (1984). Growth and morphogenesis of mature embryo of Capsella in culture. Plant. Physiology, 39: 691-699.
Achigan-Dako., E. G., Tchokponhoué, D. A., N’Danikou, S., Gebauer, J. and Vodouhè, R. S. (2015). Current knowledge and breeding perspectives for the miracle plant Synsepalum dulcificum (Schum. et Thonn.) Daniell. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 62 (3): 465-476.
Oumorou, M., Dah-Dovonon, J., Aboh, B. A., Hounsoukaka, M. and Sinsin, B. (2010). Contribution a` la conservation de Synsepalum dulcificum: regeneration et importance socioeconomique dans le departement de loueme (Benin). Annales de la Science Agronomique, 14: 101–120
Idohou, R., Assogbadjo, A. E., Fandohan, B., Gouwakinnou, G. N., Kakai, R. L. G., Sinsin, B. and Maxted, N. (2013). National inventory and prioritization of crop wild relatives: case study for Benin. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60: 1337–1352.
Welsh, J. and McClelland, M. (1990). Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Research, 18: 7213-7218.
Williams, J. G. K., Kubelik, A. R., Livak, K. J., Rafalski, J. A. and Tingey, S. V. (1990). DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Research, 18: 6531-6535.
Ramshini, H., Naghavi, M. R. and Alizadeh, H. (2005). Comparison of genetic diversity based on total and sharp bands of RAPD data in wheat. Asian. Journal of Plant Science 4 (2): 123-127.
Hoque, M. O., Topaloglu, O. and Begum, S. (2005). Quantitative methylation- specific polymerase chain reaction gene patterns in urine sediment distinguished prostate cancer patients from control subjects. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23 (27): 6569-75.
Sadder, M. T. and Ateyyeh, A. F. (2006). Molecular assessment of polymorphism among local Jordanian genotypes of the common Fig (Ficus carica L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 107: 347-351.
Aagaard, J. E., Krutovsku, K. V. and Strauss, S. H. (1998). RAPDs and allozymes exhibit similar levels of diversity and differentiation among population and races of Douglas fir. Heredity, 81: 69-78.
Doyle, J. J. and Doyle, J. L. (1987). A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical bulletin, 19: 11–15.
Skroch, P. and Nienhuis, J. (1995). Impact of scoring error and reproducibility of RAPD data on RAPD based estimates of genetic distance. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, (1995) 91: 1086-1090.
Qadir, A., Ilyas, M., Akhtar, W., Aziz, E., Rasheed, A. and Mahmood, T. (2015). Study of genetic diversity in synthetic hexaploid wheats using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. The Journal of Animal and Plant Science, 25 (6): 2015: 1660-1666.
Nei, M. (1978). Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics, 89: 583-890.
Yeh, F. C., Yang, R. C. and Boyle, T. (1997). POPGENE, a userfriendly shareware for population genetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Calgary, Canada.
Kelley, K. (2009). Genetic Variability in Hydrastis Canadensis L. Using RAPD Analysis. (Dissertation). University of Massachusetts.
Meregini, A. O. A. (2005). Some endangered plants producing edible fruits and seeds in Southeastern Nigeria. Fruits, 60: 211-220. doi:10.1051/fruits:2005028.
Ogunsola, K. E. and Ilori, C. O. (2008). In vitro propagation of miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum Daniel) through embryo and nodal cultures. African Journal of Biotechnology 7 (3): 244-24.
Joyner, G. (2006). “The Miracle Fruit,” in Quandong Magazine, ed. Scott, P. West Australian Nut and Tree Crop Association West Australia, pp 15-15.
Edem, C. A., Dosunmu, M. I., Ebong, A. C. and Jones, M. (2008). Determination of proximate composition of ascorbic acid and heavy metal contents of star fruit (Averrhoa Carambola). Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 14 (2): 193-195.
Nkwocha, C. (2014). Proximate and composition analyses of Synsepalum dulcificum pulp. Science Research Journal, 2: 71-74.
Neog, K., Singh, H., Unni, B. and Sahu, A. K. (2010). Analysis of genetic diversity of muga silkworm (Antheraea assamensis, Helfer; Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) using RAPD-based molecular markers. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9 (12): 1746-1752.
Mahmood, T., Nazar, N., Abbasi, B. H., Khan, M. A., Ahmad, M. and Zafar, M. (2010). Detection of somaclonal variations using RAPD fingerprinting in Silybum marianum (L.). J. Medicinal Plants Research, 4 (17): 1822-1824.
Aruna, M., Ozias-Akins, P., Austin, M. E. and Kochert, G. (1993). Genetic relatedness among rabbit eye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) cultivars determined by DNA amplification using single primers of arbitrary sequence. Genome, 36 (5): 971-977.
Dettori, M. T. and M. A. Palombi, 2000. Identification of Feijoa sellowiana Berg accessions by RAPD markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 86: 279-90.
Hamrick, J. L. (1983). “The distribution of genetic variation within and among natural plant populations,” In, Schonewald-Cox, C. M., Chambers, S. M., McBryde, B. and Thomas, W. L. (Eds.) Genetics and Conservation, Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, USA., pp 335-348.
Barrett, S. C. H., Arunkumar, R and Wright, S. I. (2014). The demography and population genomics of evolutionary transitions to self-fertilization in plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Biology, 369: 1-9.
Igic, B. and Busch, J. W. (2013). Is self-fertilization an evolutionary dead end? New. Phytology, 198: 386–397.
Wright, S. I., Kalisz, S. and Slotte, T. (2013). Evolutionary consequences of self-fertilization. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biology, 280: 20130133.
Morjan, C. L. and Rieseberg, L. H (2004). How species evolve collectively: Implications on gene flow and selection for the spread of advantageous alleles. Molecular Ecology 13: 1341-1356.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186