European Journal of Biophysics
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 47-66
Received: Jan. 2, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 10, 2017;
Published: Feb. 10, 2017
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Paul Levi, Institute for Parallel and Distributed Systems (IPVS), Faculty for Informatics, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany
This article describes small neurotransmitters as particles of a spinless quantum field. That is, the particles are Bosons that e.g. can occupy equal energy levels. In addition, we consider the particles of the presynaptic region before exocytosis occur as elements of a grand canonical ensemble that is in a thermodynamic equilibrium. Thus, the particles obey the Bose-Einstein statistics, which also determines the corresponding information entropy and the corresponding density matrix. When the release of neurotransmitters occur, the equilibrium collapses and the Bose-Einstein distribution transfers to the Poisson distribution. Moreover, the particles transmit as wave packets, with quantized energies and momenta, through the chemical synapses, where we also describe the effects of the quantum fluctuations. We mark this symmetry braking process that corresponds to a non-equilibrium phase transition by a threshold, which mainly depends on the mean of the particles number, with defined quanta. We model the connections of synaptic neurons of a population to a network by Hamiltonians that include both Bosons and Fermions and their interactions. Bosons are the carriers of messages (information) and Fermions are the switches, which forward these messages, with a modified content. The effects we observe in such a neural circuitry reveals a strong dependence of the solutions from the initial values and, more relevant, solutions with chaotic behavior exist. These circuitry-based ramifications together with possible internal malfunctioning of particular neurons (e.g. intermitted flow) of the network cause a sustainable reduction of the synaptic plasticity.
Quantum Effects in Synaptic Neurons and Their Networks in the Brain, European Journal of Biophysics.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2016, pp. 47-66.
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