Analysis of Physico-Chemical Properties of Beeswax Produced in Bale Natural Forest, South-Eastern Ethiopia
European Journal of Biophysics
Volume 4, Issue 5, October 2016, Pages: 42-46
Received: Nov. 29, 2016;
Accepted: Jan. 3, 2017;
Published: Jan. 19, 2017
Views 3927 Downloads 188
Bekele Tesfaye, Oromiya Agriculture Research Institute (OARI), Sinana Agriculture Research Center (SARC), Bale-Robe, Ethiopia
Desalegn Begna, Oromiya Agriculture Research Institute (OARI), Holeta Bee Research Center (HBRC), Holeta, Ethiopia
Mitiku Eshetu, Haramay University, Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Dire-Dawa, Ethiopia
Follow on us
The study was conducted to evaluate physico-chemical properties of beeswax from Bale natural forest Southeastern of Ethiopia in 2014/15. For analysis fifteen (15) crude beeswax samples each of 1 to 3 kg were obtained from three locations considering the different agro-ecologies of Bale and compared against to the national and international standards. The physico-chemical characters evaluated were: melting point, specific gravity, refractive index, volatile matter, acid value, saponification value, ester value, and acid to ester ratio. Although there were some significant variation (P <0.05) between the different agro-ecologies, all samples collected were found in the range of the national and international standard limits. The means results of beeswax sample collected were Melting Point (62.39±0.12), Acid Value (22.33±0.39), Ester Value (75.58±0.84), Ester to Acid Ratio (3.38±0.07), Saponification Value (98.04±0.86), Specific gravity (0.9598±0.001), Refractive Index (1.4426±0.0002) and Volatile Matter (0.3335±0.027). Results obtained in this study, indicate that beeswax obtained from Bale show excellent quality characters according to the national and international standards. Hence, it is advisable to utilize the potentials for export market with better improved technology interventions.
Physico-Chemical, Properties, Beeswax, Quality, Natural Forest, Bale
To cite this article
Analysis of Physico-Chemical Properties of Beeswax Produced in Bale Natural Forest, South-Eastern Ethiopia, European Journal of Biophysics.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2016, pp. 42-46.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bernal J. L, Jiménez J. J, Delnozal M. J, Toribio L, Martín M. T. (2005). Physico-chemical parameters for the characterization of pure beeswax and detection of adulterations Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, Spain. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 107: 158–166.
Anam. O. O. and Gathuru E. M (1985). Melting point and saponification cloud point of adulterated beeswax. Proceedings of 3rd International conference on apiculture in tropical climate, 1984, pp 222-223 Nairobi, Kenya.
Tulloch, A. P. (1980). Beeswax composition and analysis. Bee World. v 61, pp 47–62.
Nuru Adgaba (2007). Physical and Chemical properties of Ethiopian beeswax and detection of adulteration. Ethiopian journal of Animal Production, volume 7, Number 1, pp 39-48.
Bogdanov S. (2004) Beeswax: quality issues today. Bee World 85: 46-50.
American Beeswax Importers and Refiners Association Inc. (1968).The United States Pharmacopeia-24/National Formulary-19, National Publishing, New York, USA, pp. 2536–2537.
United States Pharmacopoeial Convention, Inc.,(2000). National Publishing. National Formulary, 19, 2537.
Tulloch, A. P, Hoffman L. L, (1972). Canadian beeswax: analytical values and composition of hydrocarbons, free acids and long chain esters. J Am Oil Chem Soc, 49, 696–699.
Bonreh Serra J. and Bormejo Orantes F. J. (2011). Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax. Food Chemistry, http:// www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem.
Ethiopian Standard (2005). Beeswax-Specification. First edition, ES 1203.
Krell R. (1996). Value added products from bee keeping. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, 124. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy, 371 p.
EAS (East African Standard) (2010). Beeswax – crude and refined Specification. www.eachq. Org.
Kenya Standard (2013). Specification for natural beeswax. CD/05 – 1279, ICS 67.120.
Indian Standard (2007). Beeswax, Crude and Refined Specification (Third Revision) res, 65.140.10; 75.140, https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/S06is.1504.1996.