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Prevalence of Oral Candida Albicans Infection in HIV Sero-Positive Patients in Abakaliki
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 72-76
Received: Apr. 3, 2013; Published: Jun. 10, 2013
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Okonkwo E. C., Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sicences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Alo M. N., Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federal University Ndufu Alike-Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Nworie O., Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federal University Ndufu Alike-Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Orji J. O., Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sicences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Agah M. V., Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sicences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
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Oral thrush is commonly associated with HIV infection. The causative agent is a yeast strain that is originally a commensal of the oral cavity. Most species of the genus Candida that causes oral candidasis in HIV patients if not properly identified and treated with the drug of choice could result in resistant to the drugs and make treatment very difficult. This study was carried out to establsish the species spectrum of the common yeast(Candida albicans) associated with oral candidiasis in HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment in Abakaliki. A total of 240 samples were collected from HIV sero-positive males(64) and females(176) at the two hospitals. 40 control samples from HIV sero-negative persons were also collected. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and Candida species were isolated and characterized using germ tube test and sugar fermentation tests. Out of the 240 subjects(HIV sero-positive patients) examined for oral candidiasis, the carriage rate of oral candidiasis were 12.5%(30/240). Candida albicans accounted for 80.00% in HIV sero-postive patients, followed by Candida pseudotropicalis(10.0%). More women, 21(8.75) had oral candidiasis than men 9(3.75%). HIV patients whether or not on drugs were predisposed to oral candidiasis. C. albicans(76.19%) is the commonest species associated with HIV infected patients on ART(Active Retroviral Therapy) followed by Candida pseudotropicalis(14.29%), Candida tropicalis(4.76%) and Candida parapsilosis(4.76%). Among the patients not on ART Candida albicans(88.89%) was most prevalent, followed by Candida guilliermondii(11.11%). C. albicans still remains the leading cause of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV infected persons within the study population. Constant identification of isolates of yeasts infecting HIV infected persons and the immune compromised will further enhance the appropriate treatment and minimize the spread emergence of antifungal resistance.
Prevalence, Oral Candidiasis, HIV Sero-Positve Patients, ART, Abakaliki
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Okonkwo E. C., Alo M. N., Nworie O., Orji J. O., Agah M. V., Prevalence of Oral Candida Albicans Infection in HIV Sero-Positive Patients in Abakaliki, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2013, pp. 72-76. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20130102.18
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