American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 351-355
Received: Nov. 16, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 28, 2014;
Published: Dec. 2, 2014
Views 2981 Downloads 256
Aiman I. Al-Qtaitat, Departments of Anatomy & Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan
Saed M. Aldalaen, Departments of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mutah University, Karak, Jordan
One of the unique aspects of the bone formation process is the biological mineralization of the proteinaceous matrix. The physicochemical process of mineralization is closely regulated; the precise nature of this regulation is not completely understood. The mineralization process is influenced by matrix proteins, some of which act as inhibitors and some as enhancers. Such factors include collagen mainly types I, III and VI, extracellular matrix proteins and cell attachment proteins, in addition to systemic hormones.
Aiman I. Al-Qtaitat,
Saed M. Aldalaen,
A Review of Non-Collagenous Proteins; their Role in Bone, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2014, pp. 351-355.
George A and Veis A. Phosphorylated proteins and control over apatite nucleation, crystal growth, and inhibition. Chem. Rev. 2008; 108: 4670–4693.
Nudelman F, Lausch AJ, Sommerdijk NAJM and Sone ED. In vitro models of collagen biomineralization. Journal of Structural Biology 2013: 183: 258–269.
Mundy GR. Bone Remodeling and its Disorders. Martin Dunitz, London, 1995.
Massaro EJ and Rogers JM. The Skeleton: Biochemical, Genetic, and Molecular Interactions in Development and Homeostasis. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 2004.
Price PA, Williamson MK and Haba T. Excessive mineralization with growth plate closure in rats on chronic warfarin treatment. Proceeding National Academy of Science 1982; 79: 7734-7738.
Favus JM. Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia, USA, 1999.
Robinson RA. An electron microscopic study of the crystalline inorganic component of bone and its relationship to the organic matrix. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1952; 34A: 389-434.
Aaron JE. Alkaline phosphatase, vesicles and calcification. Metabolic Bone Disease Related Research 1980; 2S: 117-125.
Baron R, Chakraborty M and chatterjee D. The biology of the osteoclast. In: Physiology and Pharmacology of Bone. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Editors Mundy GR and Martin TJ. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1993; 111-147.
Vincent K and Durrant MC. "A structural and functional model for human bone sialoprotein". Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 2013; 39: 108–117.
Reinholt FB, Hultenby K, Oldberg A and Heinegard D. Osteopontin- a possible anchor of osteoclasts to bone. Proceeding National Academy of Science 1990; 87: 4473-4475.
Tanaka H, Hruska KA and Seino. Disassociation of the macrophage-maturational effect of vitamin D from respiratory burst priming. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 1991; 266: 888-892.
Delany AM, Amling M, Priemel M, Howe C, Baron R and Canalis E. Osteopenia and decreased bone formation in osteonectin-deficient mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2000; 105: 915-923.
Weiss RE and Reddi AH. Synthesis and localization of fibronectin during collagenous matrix-mesenchymal cell interaction and differentiation of cartilage and bone in vivo. Proceeding National Academy of Science 1980; 77: 2074.
Carter DH, Sloan P and Aaron JE. Immunlocalization of collagen type I and III, tenascin and fibronectin in intramembranous bone. The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 1991; 39: 599-606.
Herring GM. The organic matrix in bone. In The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, Academic Press: New York 1972; 127.
Fisher LW, Whitson SW and Avioli LV. Matrix sialoprotein of developing bone. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 1983; 258: 12 723.
Hauschka PV, Mavrakos AE and Iafrati MD. Groth factors in bone matrix, isolation of multiple types by affinity chromatography on heparin-sepharose. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 1986; 112: 83-88.
Noda M and Camillier JJ. In vivo stimulation of bone formation by transforming growth factor β. Endocrinology 1989; 124:2991-2994.
Mackie EJ and Trechsel U. Stimulation of bone formation in vivo by transforming growth factor β-remodeling of woven bone and lack of inhibition by indomethacin. Bone 1990; 11:295-300.
Pfeilschifter J, Wolf O and Naumann A. Chemotactic response of osteoblast-like cells to transforming growth factor β. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1990; 5:825-830.
Rodan SB, Wesolowski G and Thomas K. Growth stimulation of rat calvaria osteoblastic cells by acidic fibroblast growth factor. Endocrinology 1987; 121: 1917-1923.
Reddi, AH and Reddi A. "Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs): from morphogens to metabologens". Cytokine & growth factor reviews 2009; 20 (5-6): 341–2.
Canalis EM. Effect of insulin-like growth factor I on DNA and protein synthesis in cultured rat calvaria. Journal of Clinical Investigations 1980; 66: 709-719
Garrett IR, Durie BGM and Nedwin GE. Production of the bone resorping cytokine lymphotoxin by culture human myeloma cells. New England Journal of Medicine 1987; 317: 526-532.
Dominguez JH and Mundy GR. Monocytes mediate osteoclastic bone resorption by prostaglandin production. Calcified Tissue International 1980; 31: 29-34.
Raisz LG. Prostaglandins and bone: physiology and pathophysiology. Osteoarthritis 1999; 7: 419-421.
Friedman J, Au WYW and Raisz LG. Response of fetal rat bone to thyrocalcitonin in tissue culture. Endocrinology 1986; 82: 149-156.
Chambers TJ and Ali HN. Inhibition of osteoclastic motility by prostaglandins. Journal of Pathology 1983; 139: 383-393.
Au WYW. Calcitonin treatment of hypercalcemia due to parathyroid carcinoma: synergistic effect of prednisolone on long term treatment of hypercalcemia. Archive of International Medicine 1975; 135: 1594-1597.
Garabedian M, Tanaka Y and Holick MF. Response of intestinal calcium transport and bone calcium mobilization to 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in thyroparathyroidectemised rat. Endocrinology 1974; 94: 1022-1027.
Raisz LG, Kream BE and smith MD. Comparison of the effect of vitamin D metabolites on collagen synthesis and resorption of fetal rat in organ culture. Calcified Tissue International 1980; 32: 135-138.
Smith D, Gowen M and Mundy GR. Effects of interferon gamma and other cytokines on collagen synthesis in fetal rat bone cultures. Endocrinology 1987; 120:2494-2498.
Arend WP, Joslin FG and Thombson RC. An IL-1 inhibitor from human monocytes. Production and characterization of biologic properties. Journal of Immunology 1989; 15: 1851-1858.
Lewis BD, Liggit D, and TEitelbaum S. Mechanism of osteoporosis in IL-4 transgenic mice. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1992; 7 S no 20.
Feyen JHM, Elford P and Dipadova FE. Interleukin-6 is produced by bone and modulated by parathyroid hormone. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1989; 4:633-638.
Kurihara N, Bertolini D and Suda T. Interleukin-6 stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in long term human marrow cultures by inducing IL-1 release. Journal of Immunology 1990; 144: 426-430.