Conservation of globally endangered plant resources is a critical ecological, cultural and economic issue. The undertaking of ecological study focusing on the distribution, abundance and population structures of target species is fundamental to the assessment of the conservation status of wild populations. A study was carried out on the wild herb Hypericum sinaicum (Family: Hypericaceae) in Saint Katherine Protectorate (SKP), South Sinai, Egypt, where 22 sites presenting different habitats in SKP were surveyed for: (1) investigate the floristic composition, vegetation types and H. sinaicum distribution in the area, (2) define the ecological status of H. sinaicum and characterize this range by its size, shape, boundaries and internal structure, (3) clearly identify conservation priorities and suggest appropriate strategies for H. sinaicum conservation, (4) detect the effect of environmental factors on the distribution of H. sinaicum in order to use it as first step for conservation by rehabilitation or restoration, (5) determine the effect of spatial variation on plant community and H. sinaicum productivity, and (6) to determine the ecological and climatic requirements for this species and detect their effect on the species distribution. A total of 113 species were recorded in total within the 237 sites. 37 families were recorded within the study area; Asteraceae (15%) and Lamiaceae (11.5%) presented the dominant families in this area, while the Hypercaceae family which represented the target species (H. sinaicum) was recorded only once. H. sinaicum was recorded as dominant species in only 12 sites from 237 with 5%. Morphological attributes for Hypericum showed great variation due to the variation in the edaphic features of different locations. Finally it’s was observed that vegetation constitutes an organized whole, it operates at a higher level of integration than the separate species and may possess emergent properties not necessarily found in individual themselves. Most of the H. sinaicum populations were small and the plants occurred sporadically in space, as little groups conjugated with wet soil. At the micro-site level, H. sinaicum plants occupied most of high altitude habitats in SKP such as cliffs, Wadi bed, terrace, gorge, slope and cave habitats. H. sinaicum prefers the wet and shady places like gorges, slopes and cliffs with continuous water supply. There is an urgent need to integrate the knowledge derived from ecological, demographic and climatic approaches to species conservation in order to be able to formulate management strategies that take into account all different considerations.
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