Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 and Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 as Markers of Atherosclerosis of NIDDM
Background: Leukocyte adhesion to arterial endothelial cells is thought to be an important step in the development of atherosclerosis, Adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and the endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) play an essential role in the early stages of atherogenesis of diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 80 male divided into two groups 60 of them had diabetes mellitus and 20 subjects were normal healthy individuals served as a control group. Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the measurement of serum VCAM-1and ELAM-1and WBC assay executed by automatic hematology analyzer the information of patients were obtained through a questionnaire consisted Patients with other diseases were excluded from the current investigation. Results: This result revealed elevated level of serum VCAM-1and ELAM-1 of Diabetes patients compared with healthy group also differentiation count reveal elevated count of WBC, Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil in Diabetes patient as compare with HT group.
Mohammed E. Al-Ghurabi,
Ali A. Muhi,
Dhefaf H. Al-Mudhafar,
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 and Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1 as Markers of Atherosclerosis of NIDDM, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 22-26.
Krolewski A, Warram J, Valsania P, Martin B, Laffel L, Christlieb A. Evolving natural history of coronary artery disease in diabetes mellitus. Am. J. Med 1991; 90:56S-61S.
Factor S, Segal B, van Hoeven K. Diabetes and coronary vascular disease. Coron. Art. Dis 1991;3:4-10.
Nowak M1, Wielkoszyński T, Marek B, Kos-Kudła B, Swietochowska E, Siemińska L, et al. Blood serum levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) in diabetic retinopathy. Clin Exp Med 2008; 8(3):159-64.
Cybulsky M, Gimbrone M. Endothelial expression of a mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule during atherogenesis, Science. Wash. DC 1991;251:788-791.
Li H, Cybulsky M, Gimbrone M, Libby P.An atherogenic diet rapidly induces VCAM-1, a cytokine-regulatable mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule, in rabbit aortic endothelium. Arterioscler. Thromb 1993;13:197-204..
Richardson M, Hadcock S, DeReske M, Cybulsky M. Increased expression in vivo of VCAM-1 and E-selectin by the aortic endothelium of normolipemic and hyperlipemic diabetic rabbits. Arterioscler. Thromb 1994;14:760-769.
O’Brien KD, Allen MD, McDonald TO, Chait A, Harlan JM, Fishbein D, et al. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques: implicationsfor the mode of progression of advanced coronary atherosclerosis, J ClinI n v e s t 1993;92:945–951.
Fasching P, Waldhausl W, Wagner O. Elevated circulating adhesion molecules in NIDDM; potential mediators in diabeticmacroangiopathy, Diabetologia 1996;39:1242-1244.
Albertini JP, Valensi P, Lormeau B,Aurousseau MH, Ferriere F, Attali JR,Gattegno L. Elevated concentrations ofsoluble E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in NIDDM: effect of intensiveinsulin treatment.Diabetes Care 1998;21:1008–1013.
Kado S, Wakatsuki T, Yamamoto M, Nagata N. Expression of ICAM-1 induced by high glucose concentrations in human aortic endothelial cells. Life Sci 2001;68: 727-737.
Morigi M, Angioletti S, Imberti B, DonadelliR, Micheletti G, Figliuzzi M, et al.Leukocyte-endothelialinteraction is augmented by high glucoseconcentrations and hyperglycemia in aNF-kB-dependent fashion. J Clin Invest 1998;101:1905–1915.
Matsumoto K, Miyake S, Yano M, Ueki Y,Tominaga Y. High serum concentrationsof soluble E-selectin in patients with impairedglucose tolerance with hyperinsulinemia. Atherosclerosis 2000;152:415–420.
Yong Woo Lee, Paul H. Kim, Won Hee Lee, Anjali A. Interleukin-4, Oxidative Stress, Vascular Inflammation and Atherosclerosis. Biomol Ther 2010;18(2): 135–144.
Albelda SM, Smith CW, Ward PA. Adhesion molecules and inflammatory Injury, FASEB J 1994;8:504–512.
Springer TA. Adhesion receptors of the immune system, N a t u r e 1990;346 : 425 – 434.
O’Brien KD, McDonald TO, Chait A, Allen MD, Alpers CE. Neovascular expression of E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in human atherosclerosis and their relation to intimal leukocyte content. C i r c u l a t i o n 1996;93:672–682.
Libby P, Li H. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and smooth muscle cell activation during atherogenesis, J Clin Invest 1993;92:538–539.
Alon R, Kassner PD, Carr MW, Finger EB, Hemler ME, Springer TA. The integrin VLA-4 supports tethering and rolling in flow on VCAM-1, J Cell Biol 1995;128:1243–1253.
Luscinskas FW, Kansas GS, Ding H, Pizcueta P, Schleiffenbaum BE, Tedder TF, Gimbrone MA Jr. Monocyte rolling, arrest and spreading on IL-4-activated vascular endothelium under flow is mediated via sequential action of L-selectin,beta 1-integrins, and beta 2-integrins, J Cell Biol 1994;125:1417–1427.
Jager A, van Hinsbergh VW, Kostense PJ, Emeis JJ, Nijpels G, Dekker JM, et al.Increased levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are associated with risk of cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes, the Hoorn study, Diabetes 2000;49(3):485-91.
Davies MJ, Gordon JL, Gearing AJ, Pigott R, Woolf N, Katz D, et al. The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM, and E-selectin in human atherosclerosis, J Pathol 1993;171:223–229.
Gearing AJ, Hemingway I, Pigott R, Hughes J, Rees AJ, Cashman SJ. Soluble forms of vascular adhesion molecules, E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1:pathological significance, Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992;667:324–331.
Gearing AJ, Newman W. Circulating adhesion molecules in disease, Immunol To d a y 1993;14:506–512.
Schmidt AM, Hori O, Chen JX, Li JF, Crandall J, Zhang J, et al. Advanced glycation endproducts interacting with their endothelial receptor induce expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in cultured human endothelial cells and in mice: a potential mechanism for the accelerated vasculopathy of diabetes, J Clin Invest 1995;96:1395–1403.
Jang Y, Lincoff AM, Plow EF, Topol EJ. Cell adhesion molecules in coronary artery disease, J Am Coll C a r d i o l 1994; 24:1591–1601.
Kawamura T, Umemura T, Kanai A, Uno T, Matsumae H, Sano T, et al. The incidence and characteristics of silent cerebral infarction in elderly diabetic patients: association with serumsoluble adhesion molecules, D i a b e t o l o g i a 1998;41:911–917.
Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska. Evaluation of lipid parameters, homocysteine, adhesion molecules and carotid intima-media thickness in children from families with circulatory system diseases history,the journal of preventive medicine 2004;12 (3-4): 5-14
De Caterina R, Basta G, Lazzerini G, Dell’Omo G, Petrucci R, Morale M, et al.Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as a biohumoral correlate of atherosclerosis, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17 : 26 46–2654.
Peter K, Nawroth P, Conradt C, Nordt T, Weiss T, Boehme M, et al.Circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-correlates with the extent of human atherosclerosis in contrast to circulat- ing intercellular adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, and thrombomodulin, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:505–512, 1997.
Farhan J Khawaja Iftikhar J Kullo. Novel markers of peripheral arterial disease, Vasc Med 2009;14(4): 381–392.
Shih-Jen Hwang, Christie M. Ballantyne, A. Richey Sharrett, Louis C. Smith, Clarence E. Davis, Antonio M. Gotto Jr, et al. Circulating Adhesion Molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in Carotid Atherosclerosis and Incident Coronary Heart Disease Cases, Circulation 1997;96: 4219-4225.
Altannavch TS, Roubalova K, Kucera P, Andel M. Effect of High Glucose Concentrations on Expression of ELAM-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in HUVEC with and without Cytokine Activation, Physiol. Res 2004;53: 77-82, 2004
Raja B Singh, Sushma A Mengi, Yan-Jun Xu, Amarjit S Arneja, Naranjan S Dhalla. Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: A multifactorial process, Exp Clin Cardiol 2002;7(1): 40–53.
Mach F. The role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001;3:243–51.
Elena Galkina, Klaus Ley.Vascular Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2007;27: 2292-2301.
Matsumoto K, Sera Y, Nakamura H, Ueki Y, Miyake S. Serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules are related to degree of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002;55: 131-138.
Rizzoni D, Porteri E, Guelfi D, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in small resistance arteries of patients with non-insulin-de- pendent diabetes mellitus. J Hypertens 2001; 19: 913–919.
Kowalska I, Strączkowska M, Szelachowska M. Circu- lating E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and in- tercellular adhesion molecule-1 in men with coronary artery disease assessed by angiography and disturbances of car- bohydrate metabolism, Metabolism 2002;51: 733–736.
Matsumoto K, Sera Y, Ueki Y Inukai G, Niiro E, Miyake S. Comparison of serum concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules in diabetic microangiopathy and macroangiopa- thy, Diabet Med 2002;19: 822–826.
Weissberg P. Mechanisms modifying atherosclerotic disease from lipids to vascular biology, Atherosclerosis 1999;147: 3–10.
Ewa R, Jolanta J, Bronisława S, Celina W, Krzysztof S, Łukasz S, etal. Evaluation of VCAM-1 and PAI-1 concentration in diabetes mellitus patients, Diabetologia Doświadczalna i Kliniczna 2008;8:85-88.
Ohshita K, Yamane K, Hanafusa M, Mori H, Mito K, Okubo M, etal. Elevated white blood cell count in sub- jects with impaired glucose tolerance, Di- abetes Care 2004;27:491–496.
Wei Xu1, Hai-feng Wu, Shao-gang Ma, Feng Bai, Wen Hu, Yue Jin, etal. Correlation between Peripheral White Blood Cell Counts and Hyperglycemic Emergencies, Int J Med Sci 2013;10(6):758-765.
Elyse D M, Stephen P G, Karin J D. Diabetes Alters Activation and Repression of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Signaling Pathways in the Vasculature, Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)2013;4: 68.
Ann Marie Schmidt, Osamu Hori, Jing Xian Chen, Jian Feng Li, Jill Crandall, Jinghua Zhang, etal.Advanced Glycation Endproducts Interacting with Their Endothelial Receptor Induce Expression of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells and in Mice, The Journal of Clinical Investigation 1995;96: 1395-1403.