Genetic Engineering of Microalgae for Enhanced Biodiesel Production Suitable Fuel Replacement of Fossil Fuel as a Novel Energy Source
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2015, Pages: 32-41
Received: Jan. 19, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 29, 2015;
Published: Feb. 6, 2015
Views 2867 Downloads 590
Fatemeh Nazari, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran
Jamshid Raheb, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran
Due to negative environmental influence and limited availability, petroleum derived fuels need to be replaced by renewable biofuels. Biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel. Microalgae provide various potential advantages for biodiesel production when compared with ‘traditional’ crops. Specifically, large scale micro algal culture need not compete for arable land, while in theory their productivity is greater. In consequence, there has been resurgence in interest and a proliferation of algae fuel projects. However, while on a theoretical basis, microalgae may produce between 10 and 100 fold more oil per acre, such capacities have not been validated on a commercial scale. There are a series of consecutive processes for biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock, including selection of adequate micro algal strains, mass culture, cell harvesting, oil extraction and trans esterification. To reduce the overall production cost, technology development and process optimization are necessary. Genetic engineering also plays an important role in manipulating lipid biosynthesis in microalgae. Many approaches, such as sequestering carbon dioxide from industrial plants for the carbon source, using wastewater for the nutrient supply, and maximizing the values of byproducts, have shown a potential for cost reduction. This review provides a brief overview of genetic engineering of microalgae for enhanced biodiesel production.
Genetic Engineering of Microalgae for Enhanced Biodiesel Production Suitable Fuel Replacement of Fossil Fuel as a Novel Energy Source, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2015, pp. 32-41.
Apt KA and Behrens PW. Commercial developments in microalgal biotechnology.J Phycol 1999. 35:215-226.
Babu BV. Biomass pyrolysis: a state-of-the-art review. Biofuels bioproductsbioreﬁnin 2008. 2(5):393-414.
Bahadur NP, Boocock DGB and Konar SK. Liquid hydrocarbons from catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge lipid and canola oil. Evaluation of fuel properties. Energy Fuels 1995. 9:248-56.
Beer LL, Boyd ES, Peters JW and Posewitz MC. Engineering algae for biohydrogen and biofuel production. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2009. 20:264-271.
Boateng AA, Mullen CA, Goldberg N, Hicks KB, Jung HJG and Lamb JFS. Production of bio-oil from alfalfa stems by ﬂuidized-bed fast pyrolysis. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2008. 47:4115-22.
Boussiba S, Wu X-Q, Ben-Dov E, Zarka A and Zaritsky A. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria as gene delivery system for expressing mosquitocidal toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Israelensis. J applphycol 2000. 12:461–467.
Chisti Y. Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnology Advances 2007. 25:294-306.
Chistiy. Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol. Trends in Biotechnology 2008.26(3):126-131.
Chungjatupornchai W. Expression of the mosquitocidal protein genes of Bacillus thurigiensis ssp. Israelensis and the herbicide-resistance gene Bar in Synechocystis PCC6803. Currmicrobiol 1990. 21:283-288.
Claudio Fuentes-Grünewald C, Garcés E, Rossi S and Camp J. Use of the dinoflagellatekarlodiniumveneficum as a sustainable source of biodiesel production. Journal of Indian Microbiol Biotechnology 2009. 36:1215-1224.
Du Z, Li Y, Wang X, Wan Y, Chen Q, Wang C, Lin C, Liu Y, Chen P and Ruan R. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of microalgae for biofuel production. Bioresource Technology 2011. 102:4890-4896.
Dunahay TG, Jarvis EE, Dais SS, Roessler PG. Manipulation of microalgal lipid production using genetic engineering. Applbiochembiotechnol 1996. 57-58:223-31.
Greenwell HC, Laurens LM, Shields RJ, Lovitt RW and Flynn KJ. Placing microalgae on the biofuels priority list: a review of the technological challenges. Journal of Royal Society Interface 2010. 7:703-726.
Kindle KL, Richards KL, Stern DB. Engineering the chloroplast genome: techniques and capabilities for chloroplast transformation in Clamydomonasreinhardtii.procnatlacadsci USA 1990. 88:1721-1725.
Leesk, chouh, hamts, leets andkeaslingjd.Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production.from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2008. 19:556-563.
León-Bañares R, González-Ballester D, Galváan A and Fernández E. Transgenic microalgae as green cell-factories. Trends Biotechnol 2004. 22:45-52.
Lu X. A perspective: Photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in genetically engineered cyanobacteria. Biotechnology Advances 2010. 28:742-746.
Mata TM, Martins A and Caetano NS. Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2010. 14:217-232.
Pulz O and Gross W. Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology 2004. 65: 635-648.
Radakovits R, Jinkerson RE, Darzins AL and Posewitz MC. Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production. American Society for Microbiology 2010. 9(4): 486-501.
Reik A, Zhou Y, Collingwood TN,Warfe L, Bartsevich V, Kong Y, et al. Enhanced protein production by engineered zinc ﬁnger proteins. Biotechnolbioeng 2007. 97:1180-9.
Roessler PG, Brown LM, Dunahay TG, Heacox DA, Jarvis EE, Schneider JC and et al. Genetic-engineering approaches for enhanced production of biodiesel fuel from microalgae. ACS sympser 1994. 566:255–70.
Schenk PM, Thomas-hallsr, stephense, Marx UC, Mussgnug JH, postenc, Kruse O and hankamerb. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production. Bioenergy Research 2008. 1:20-43.
Schroda M, Blöcker D, Beck CF. The HSP70 A promoter as a tool for the improved expression of transgenes in Chlamydomonas. Plant J 2000. 21:121–31.
Sharif Hossain ABM, Salleh A, Boyce AN, Chowdhury P and Naqiuddin M. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2008. 4 (3):250-254.
Shay EG. Diesel fuel from vegetable oils. Status and Opportunities. Biomass Bioenergy 1993. 4:227-242.
Tabatabaei M, Tohidfara M, salehijouzanigh, Safarnejada M and Pazouki M. Biodiesel production from genetically engineered microalgae: Future of bioenergy in Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011. 15:1918-1927.
Wen F, Nair NU and Huimin Zhao H. Protein engineering in designing tailored enzymes and microorganisms for biofuels production. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2009. 20:412-419.
Yanqun Li. Biofuels from Microalgae Articles: Biocatalysts and Bioreactor. Biotechnolprog 2008. 24:815-820.
Zaslavskaia LA, Lippmeier JC, Shih C, Ehrhardt D, Grossman AR and Apt K. Trophic conversion of an obligate photoautotrophic organism through metabolic engineering. Science 2001. 292:2073-2075.
Zhang Z, Moo-Young M and Chisti Y. Plasmid stability in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnoladv 1996. 14:401-35.