American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 181-186
Received: Oct. 7, 2016;
Accepted: Oct. 26, 2016;
Published: Dec. 12, 2016
Views 2778 Downloads 64
Joseph Shian Alakali, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria
Ignatius Chukwuemeka Alaka, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Patience Dooshima Nomji, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria
The insecticidal effect of four biomaterials namely, Garlic (Al. sativum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Black pepper (Piper guineese L.) and Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates Staph) leaf powders, applied at 10% and 5% concentration on Cowpea grains against the Cowpea weevils (Callosobruchus maculatus fab.) were evaluated after 42 days. Their effectiveness at both dosages on proximate composition, grain damage, progeny development, grain loss and frass weight were determined. Use of the biomaterials showed good retention of some nutrients like protein and fat and did not adversely affect the other nutritional parameters. The carbohydrate values of treated samples were slightly lower (54.47 – 58.55%) for 10% and (54.56 – 59.53) for 5%. than the control (60.83 – 61.24). There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in the ash contents among biomaterials. The biomaterials showed effective control of cowpea seed damage, weevil perforation index, progeny development, and weight loss and frass weight. These effects were more at 10% concentration than at 5%. Their efficacy in order of effectiveness are as follows black pepper > ginger > garlic > lemon grass. The biomaterials, especially black pepper and ginger are good alternative to the use of chemicals for preservation of cowpea.
Joseph Shian Alakali,
Ignatius Chukwuemeka Alaka,
Patience Dooshima Nomji,
Effect of Biomaterial Treatments on the Storage Stability and Quality of Cowpea, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2016, pp. 181-186.
Adedire C. O. and Lajide L. (2003). Ability of extract of ten tropical plant species to protect maize grains against infestation by maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais during storage, Niger. J. Exp. Biol., 4: 175-179.
Adedire, C. O., & Ajayi, T. S. (1996). Assessment of the insecticidal properties of some plant extracts as grain protection against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 13, 93-101.
Adedire, C. O. (2002). Use of nutmeg, Myristica fragrans (Houtt) powder and oil for the control of cowpea storage bruchid. Callosobruchus maculatus. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 109, 193-199.
Anitial, B. S., Akpan, E. J., Okon, P. A. and Umoren, I. U. (2006). Nutritive and antinutitive evaluation of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) leaves. Pak. J. Nutr., 5: 166-168.
AOAC, (2005). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 18th Ed., Arlington,
Ashamo, M. O. (2007). Evaluation of contact toxicity and fumigant effect of some plant powders against Sitophilus zeamais (Mots.). Proceedings of the Akure- Humboldt Kellong (3rd SAAT Annual Conference: Medicinal plants in Agriculture, The Nigeria Experience, pp. 64-67
Arannilewa, S. T., Ekrakene T. and Akinneye. J. O. (2006). Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeemais (Mots). African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.5 (21) pp 2032-2036.
Balestra GM, Heydari A, Ceccarelli D, Ovidi E, Quattrucci A (2009). Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum and Ficus carica extracts on tomato bacterial pathogens. Crop Protection 28:807–811.
Bamaiyi, L. J., Onu, I.; Amatobi, C. I. and Dike, M. C. (2006). Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation on Nutritional Loss on Stored Cowpea Grains. Arch. Phytopath. Plant Prot. 39(2): 119-127.
Danjumma, B. I., Majeed, Q., Abubakar, U. and Ibrahim, N. D. (2009). Effect of Pre-Treatment with Plant Powders on the Nutrient Composition of Maize Grain Zea Mays Infested by Weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Nig. J. of Basic and Applied Science. 17(2):211-217.
Denloye, A. A., Makanjuola, W. A., Don-pendro, K. N. and Negbenebor, H. E. (2007). Insecticidal Effects of Tephrosia vogeli Hook (Leguminosae) leaf powder and extracts on Sitophilus zeamais Mostch, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Nig. J. Entomol. (24): 91-97
Duruigbo C. I. (2012). Assessing the Viability of Maize and Cowpea Seeds Stored Using Local Plant Biocides. International Journal of Biology Vol. 4, No. 2; April 2012
En Ji Cul, Jin Gyeong Cho, In Sik Chung, Ji Young Kim, Seong Gil Hong and Nam In Baek. (2013). New Triterpenoid Saponins, Cowpeasaponins I and II, from Cowpea Seeds (Vigna sinensis K.). Notes Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. Vol. 34(8) pg 2499.
Ileke, K. D., Odeyemi, O. O., Ashamo, M. O. (2012). Insecticide Activity of Alstonia boonie De Wild Powder against Cowpea Bruchid, Callosobruchus masclatus (Fab.)[Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae] in stored Cowpea Seeds. International Journal of Biology vol. 4(2) pg 125-131.
Jackson, M (1983): Control of stored product insects with phytochemicals. Paper presented at the 3rd international working conference on stored products. Entomology Kansas state university, Oct 23-28 1983.
Jood, S. and Kapoor, A. C. (1993). Protein and Uric acid Contents of Cereal Grains as Affected by Insect Infestation. Food Chem. 46: 143-146
Lale N. E. S. (2002). Stored Products Entomology and Acarology. Mole Publications Nigeria Limited, Maiduguru, Nigeria. pp. 15-92.
Muhammad, S. (2010). Some possibilities on the effectiveness of plant powders as grain protectants against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculates (Fabricius) Walp (Coleoptera: Bruchidea) infestation in chickpea. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. Vol., 1 (2), 45-50.
Mwololo J. K., Mugo S., Okori P. 1, Tefera T., Otim M. & Munyiri S. W. (2012). 2012 doi:10.5539/jas.v4n11p206 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jas.v4n11p206
Odeyemi, O. O., & Daramola, A. M. (2000). Storage practices in the tropics: Food storage and pest problems. First Edition, Dave Collins Publication, Nigeria, Vol. 1, 235.
Oni M. O., and Ileke K. D., 2008, Fumigant toxicity of four botanical plant oils on survival, egg laying and progeny development of the dried yam beetle, Dinoderus porcellus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), Ibadan. J. Agricul. Res., 4: 31-36
Oparaeke, A. M. and Dike, M. C. (2005). Comparison of garlic (Allium Sativum L.) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) products in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on stored cowpea grains. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, 13:73–80.
Rotimi, J. and O. A. Ekperusi. (2012). Effectiveness of citrus oils as cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculates (F) (Cooleopteran: Bruchidae). Advances in Applied Science Research, 3 (6): 3540-3544.
Sileshi, GW, Nyeko P, Nkunika, POY, Sekamatte BM, Akinnifesi FK, Ajayi OC. (2009). Integrating ethnoecological and scientific knowledge of termites for sustainable termite management and human welfare in Africa. Ecol Soc. 14(1):48
Soladoye, M. O. and Chukwuma, E. C. (2012). Quantitative phytochemical profile of the leaves of Cissuspopulnea Guill. and Perr. (Vitaceae) – An important medicinal plant in central Nigeria. Arch. Appl. Sci.Res. 4:200–20
Tapondjou L. A., Adler C., Bouda H., Fontem D. A. (2002). Efficacy of powder and essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves as post-harvest grain protectants against six-stored product beetles. Journal of Stored Products Research.; 38(4): 395–402.
Timko M. P and Singh BB. 2008. Cowpea, a multifunctional legume. In: Moore, P. H and Ming, R (eds) Genomics of tropical crop plants. Springer, New York, pp 227-257
Zar, J. H. (1984). Biostatistical Analysis, 2nd Edition,Prentice-Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, N. J