Physiological Health Criteria for Pyrethriod Insecticide: A Pre-test Study with Guinea Pigs
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 97-102
Received: May 6, 2017;
Accepted: May 18, 2017;
Published: Jul. 7, 2017
Views 1821 Downloads 88
Felicia Ngozi Okoh, Department of Biological Sciences, Evangel University Akaeze, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Oliver Onyemaeze Odikamnoro, Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Abakaliki, Nigeria
Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
Ikem Chris Okoye, Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
Fabian Chukwuzubelu Okafor, Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
A study of the use of lambdacyhalothrin (pyrethroid insecticide) treated curtains, mats and blankets as an alternative strategy to insecticide treated bed net for malaria control, was undertaken from 2003 to 2004 in Oruku – a sub-urban community in Nkanu East Local Government, very near Enugu in Enugu state of Nigeria. Prior to the village study, a pre-test study (safety testing) was done using Guinea pigs from January 2003 to April 2003. It was carried out inside zoological garden University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The objective of the pre-test study was to ascertain the effect of Lambdacyhalothrin on physiology of Guinea pigs before using it in human habitation (Guinea pig has physiology akin to human). The Guinea pigs were maintained in animal cages and acclimatized for four weeks before the introduction of the insecticide. Effect of the insecticide on vital physiological parameters of the Guinea pigs were measured weekly for 15 weeks. The data were analyzed using chi-square, ratio (fscore), correlation coefficient ‘r’ and coefficient of determination (r2). Result showed that Lambdacyhalothrin at 0.001mg/l to 0.050mg/l concentrations were well tolerated by the guinea pigs and was thought to be safe for use in human environment/habitation with no disruption of physiological activities.
Felicia Ngozi Okoh,
Oliver Onyemaeze Odikamnoro,
Joy Ihuoma Nzei,
Ikem Chris Okoye,
Fabian Chukwuzubelu Okafor,
Physiological Health Criteria for Pyrethriod Insecticide: A Pre-test Study with Guinea Pigs, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 4,
2017, pp. 97-102.
Costello, J. (2011). “The great zoo’s who”. Irish Independent. > http://www.independent. i.e. / lifestyle/the-great-zoos-who. Html< Date accessed: April 9, 2012.
Gorden, P. (1997). “Non- insulin dependent diabetes- the past, present and future”. Annual Academic medical Sin gap, 26(3): 326-330.
Greenwood, B. M. (1999). What can the resident of malaria endemic countries do to protect themselves against malaria. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,
Greenwood, B. M. (1997). What’s new in malaria control? Annual of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 91: 523 – 531.
LVMA (2000). Biology of Guinea pig. Louisiana Veterinary Medical Association. 4p> www.lvma.org/pig.html< Date accessed: February 6, 2000.
Malaria Consortium. (2016). Malaria consortium disease control, better health. http://www.malariaconsortium.org/pages/109.htm.
Mock, M. and Fouet, A. (2001). “Anthrax”. Annual Review of Microbiology, 55: 647-67.
Mutero, C. M., Mbogo, C., Mwangangi, J., Imbahale, S., Kibe, L., Orindi, B., Girma, M., Njui, A., Lwande, W., Affognon, H., Gichuki, C., and Mukabana1, W. R. (2015). An Assessment of Participatory Integrated Vector Management for Malaria Control in Kenya. Environmental Health Perspectives, volume 123( 11 ): 1145 -1151.
Okoh, F. N., Odikamnoro, O. O., Uhuo, C. A., Okereke, C. N., Azi, S. O. and Ogidi, E. D. (2014). Epidemiology of malaria among children aged 1 to 15 years in South East Nigeria. Jounal of Public Health and Epidemiolgy. Academic Journals, volume 6(11): 390-397.
Scollard, D. M., Adams, L. B., Gillis, T., Krahenbuhl, J. L., Truman, R. W., and Williams, D. L. (2006). “The continuing challenges of leprosy”. Clinical Microbiology Review, 19(2): 338-81 http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi.
Trull, F. L, Rich, B. A. (1999). More Regulation of Rodents Science. PubMed 284 (5419): 1463.
UAR. (2012). Guinea pig in medical research, A-Z of Different Animals Used. Understanding Animals Research. >www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk.html<Date accessed: April 9, 2012.
Walgate, R. (1981). “Armadillos fish leprosy”. Nature, 291(5816): 527 http://www.nebi.nih.gov/pubmed/7242665.
Windholz, G. (1987). “Pavlov as a psychologist. A reappraisal” Pavlov Journal of Biological Science, 22(3): 103-112. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed.
World Health Organization.(2014). World malaria report, 2014, http://www.who.int/malaria/WMR014.
World Health Organization.(2013). World malaria report, 2013, http://www.who.int/malaria/WMR0143.
World Health Organization. (2006). Global malaria programme: Use of indoor residual spraying for scaling up global malaria control and elimination. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/69386/1/WHO_HTM_MAL_2006.1112_eng.pdf.
World Health Organization. (2005). World health report, 2005. Make every mother and child count. http://www.who.int/whr/2005/en/.