Immunotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Arsenic and Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin and Probiotics in Wistar Rat
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 108-115
Received: Jul. 8, 2017; Accepted: Jul. 17, 2017; Published: Aug. 11, 2017
Views 1606      Downloads 73
Authors
Abeer Saeed Alahmari, Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Biology Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
Khadiga Gamal Eldeen Adham, Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Zoology Department, College of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Ahmad Rashed Alhimaidi, Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Arsenic is a significant environmental public health concern. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible immunotoxic and genotoxic roles of arsenic and the ameliorative effects of quercetin and probiotics as natural antioxidants. This study was performed on male adult Wistar rats divided into six groups: control, NaAsO2-treated, quercetin-treated, probiotic–treated, NaAsO2 and quercetin-treated, and NaAsO2 and probiotics-treated. Blood samples collected from all animals were prepared for some oxidative, immunological and genetic aspects. Administration of arsenic decreased body and spleen weight, reduced serum antioxidant defense parameters and DNA content, increased liver, kidney, and brain weights, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and serum cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ). Adding quercetin to arsenic was effective in restoring the altered values of cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), MPO, MDA, catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) induced by arsenic, whereas the presence of probiotics was effective in reducing genotoxicity and improving the changes of cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Quercetin and probiotics are excellent antioxidant therapies, through their ability to suppress reactive oxygen species ROS production, which may contribute to arsenic toxicity.
Keywords
Arsenic, Quercetin, Probiotics, Oxidative Stress, Lipid Peroxidation, Inflammation
To cite this article
Abeer Saeed Alahmari, Khadiga Gamal Eldeen Adham, Ahmad Rashed Alhimaidi, Immunotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Arsenic and Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin and Probiotics in Wistar Rat, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 108-115. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20170504.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Wang X., Mandal A., Saito H., Pulliam J., Lee E., Ke Z. and Shelton B. (2012) 'Arsenic and chromium in drinking water promote tumor genesis in a mouse colitis-associated colorectal cancer model and the potential mechanism is ROS-mediated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway', Toxicol., Appl. Pharmacol., Vol. 262, pp. 11–21.
[2]
WHO (World Health Organization) (2003) "Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds", 2nd ed. WHO Reg Publ Eur Ser., Geneva.
[3]
Akinleye S., Ebunoluwa O., Ademola A. and Olutayo T. (2015) 'Gastrointestinal protective efficacy of Kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid from Garcinia kola) following a single administration of sodium arsenite in rats: Biochemical and histopathological studies', Pharmacognosy Res., Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 268–276.
[4]
Liu S., Athar M., Lippai I., Waldren C. and Hei T. (2001) 'Induction of oxyradicals by arsenic: implication for mechanism of genotoxicity', Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol. 98, pp. 1643–1648.
[5]
Cindrova-Davies T., Spasic-Boskovic O., Jauniaux E., Charnock-Jones D. and Burton G. (2007) 'Nuclear factor-kappa B, p 38, and stress-activated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways regulate proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in human placental explants in response to oxidative stress: effects of antioxidant vitamins', Am. J. Pathol., Vol. 170, No. 5, pp. 1511-1520.
[6]
Ossola J., Groppa M. and Tomaro M. (1997) 'Relationship between oxidative stress and hemeoxygenase induction by copper sulfate', Arch. Biochem. Biophys, Vol. 337, No. 2, pp. 332-337.
[7]
Klebanoff S., Kettle A., Nauseef W., Winterbour, C. and Nauseef W. (2013) 'Myeloperoxidase: a front-line defender against phagocytosed microorganisms', J. leukoc. Biol., Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 185-198.
[8]
Salvamani S., Gunasekaran B., Shaharuddin N., Ahmad S. and Shukor Y. (2014) 'Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids', Biomed. Res. Int., Doi: 10.1155/2014/480258.
[9]
Liu C., Ma J. and Sun Y. (2011) 'Protective role of puerarin on lead-induced alterations of the hepatic glutathione antioxidant system and hyperlipidemia in rats', Food Chem. Toxicol., Vol. 49, pp. 3119 – 3127.
[10]
Baltaci B., Uygur R., Caglar V., Aktas C., Aydin M. and Ozen O. (2016) 'Protective effects of quercetin against arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats', Andrologia, DOI: 10.1111/and.12561.
[11]
Jahan S., Iftikhar N., Ullah H., Rukh G. and Hussain I. (2015) 'Alleviative effect of quercetin on rat testis against arsenic: a histological and biochemical study', Syst. Biol. Reprod. Med., Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 89-95.
[12]
Al-Damegh M., Zeitoun M. and Abdel-Salam A. (2014) 'The Role of Fermented Milk Containing Probiotic, Dandelion as Prebiotic or their Combination on Serum Metabolites, Enzymes, Testosterone and Testicular Histopathology of Arsenic Intoxicated Male Rats', J. Basic Appl. Sci., Vol. 10, pp. 492-503.
[13]
Monachese M., Jeremy P., Burton A. and Reid G. (2012) 'Bioremediation and Tolerance of Humans to Heavy Metals through Microbial Processes: a Potential Role for Probiotics?' Appl. Environ. Microbiol., Vol. 78, No. 18, pp. 6397–6404.
[14]
Zhai Q., Wang G., Zhao J., Liu X., Tian F., Zhang H. and Chen W. (2013) 'Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against acute cadmium toxicity in mice', Appl. Environ. Microbiol., Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 1508–1515.
[15]
Watterlot L., Rochat T., Sokol H., Cherbuy C., Bouloufa I. and Lefevre F. (2010) 'Intragastric administration of a superoxide dismutase-producing recombinant Lactobacillus casei BL23 strain attenuates DSS colitis in mice', Int. J. Food Microbiol., Vol. 144, pp. 35–41.
[16]
Akter K., Owens G., Davey D. and Naidu R. (2005) 'Arsenic speciation and toxicity in biological systems', Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol, Vol. 184, pp. 97-149.
[17]
El-Demerdash F., Mokhtar I., Yousef M. and Radwan F. (2009) 'Ameliorating effect of curcumin on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in different rat organs', Food Chem. Toxicol., Vol. 47, pp. 249–254.
[18]
Heeba G, Mahmoud M. and El Hanafy A. (2014) 'Anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin and quercetin in rats: Role of oxidative stress, heme oxygenase-1 and TNF-a', Toxicol. Ind. Health, Vol. 30, No. 6. pp. 551–560.
[19]
Appleyard C., Cruz M., Isidro A., Arthur J., Jobin C. and De Simone C. (2011) 'Pretreatment with the probiotic VSL#3 delays transition from inflammation to dysplasia in a rat model of colitis-associated cancer', Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., Vol. 301, pp. 1004-1013.
[20]
Ninkova M., Aleksandrova A., Demeneskua J., Mirkov I., Mileusnic D., Petrovic A. and Kataranovski D. (2015) 'Toxicity of oral cadmium intake: Impact on gut immunity', Toxicol. Lett, Vol. 237, pp. 89–99.
[21]
Desjardins P. and Conklin D. (2010) 'NanoDrop Microvolume Quantitation of Nucleic Acids', J. Vis. Exp., Vol. 45, pp. e2565.
[22]
Sabine J., Hanne H., Sabine E., Hardt D., Fackelmayer F., Hesch R. and Knippers R. (2001) 'DNA fragments in the blood plasma of cancer patients: quantitations and evidence for their origin from apoptotic and necrotic cells', Cancer Res., Vol. 61, pp. 1659–1665.
[23]
Wheeler C., Salzman J., Elsayed N., Omaye S. and Korte D. (1990) 'Automated assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity', Anal Biochem., Vol. 184, No. 2, pp. 193–199.
[24]
Agrawal S., Flora G., Bhatnagar P. and Flora S. (2014) 'Comparative oxidative stress, metallothionein induction and organ toxicity following chronic exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury in rats', Cell. Mol. Biol., Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 13-21.
[25]
Kaltreider R., Davis A., Lariviere J. and Hamilton J. (2001) 'Arsenic alters the function of the glucocorticoid receptor as a transcription factor', Environ. Health Perspect., Vol. 109, pp. 245-251.
[26]
Hughes M., Kenyon E., Edwards B., Mitchell C., Razo L. and Thomas D. (2003) 'Accumulation and metabolism of arsenic in mice after repeated oral administration of arsenate', Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., Vol. 191, No. 3, pp. 202-210.
[27]
Tyler C. and Allan A. (2014) 'the effects of arsenic exposure on neurological and cognitive dysfunction in human and rodent studies: a review', Curr. Environ. Health Rep., Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 132–147.
[28]
Gilani S., Zaidi S., Batool M., Bhatti D. and Mahmood J. (2015) 'Report: Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity caused by metal poisoning: Brain as a target organ Pak', J. Pharm. Sci., Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 1417-1423.
[29]
Dwivedi N. and Flora S. (2015) 'Sub-chronic exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on erythrocyte antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation in rats‏', J. Environ. Biol., Vol. 36, pp. 83-91.
[30]
Demenesku J., Mirkov I., Ivinkov M., Popov A., Zolotarevski L., Kataranovski D. and Kataranovski M. (2014) 'Acute cadmium administration to rats exerts both immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effect in spleen', Toxicol., Vol. 4, No. 326, pp. 96-108.
[31]
Lu M., Wang H., Li X., Lu X., Cullen W., Arnold L. Cohen S. and Le X. (2004) 'Evidence of hemoglobin binding to arsenic as a basis for the accumulation of arsenic in rat blood', Chem. Res. Toxicol., Vol. 17, No. 12, pp. 1733-42.
[32]
Shen S., Li X., Cullen W., Weinfeld M. and Le X. (2013) 'Arsenic binding to proteins', Chem. Rev., Vol. 113, No. 10, pp. 7769-7792.
[33]
Gopalkrishnan A. and Rao M. (2006) 'Amelioration by Vitamin A upon Arsenic Induced Metabolic and Neurotoxic Effects', J. health sci., Vol. 52, No. 5, pp. 568-577.
[34]
Shahid F., Rizwan S., Khan M., Khan S., Naqshbandi A. and Yusufi A. (2014) 'Studies on the effect of sodium arsenate on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane, and oxidative stress in the rat kidney', Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 592-599.
[35]
Gong X., Ivanov V., Davidson M. and Hei T. (2015) 'Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) protects against sodium arsenite-induced nephrotoxicity by suppressing ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory signaling pathways and programed cell death. Arch', Toxicol., Vol. 89, No. 7, pp. 1057-1070.
[36]
Kumar S., Yedjou C. and Tchounwou P. (2014) 'Arsenic trioxide induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells', J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res., Vol. 33, No. 42, DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-33-42.
[37]
Varghese M., Manju A., Abhilash M., Paul M., Abhilash S. and Nair R. (2014) 'Oxidative stress induced by the chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide', Biotech., Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 425-430.
[38]
Banerjee M., Banerjee N., Ghosh P., Das J., Basu S., Sarkar A., States J. and Giri A. (2010) 'Evaluation of the serum catalase and myeloperoxidase activity in the chronic arsenic exposed individuals and concomitant cytogenetic damage', Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., Vol. 249, No. 1. pp. 47–54.
[39]
Bashandy S., El Awdan S., Ebaid H. and Alhazza I. (2016) 'Antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis mitigates oxidative stress and reprotoxicity induced by sodium arsenite in male rats', Oxid. Med. Cell Longev, DOI: 10.1155/2016/7174351.
[40]
Mittal M., Siddiqui M., Tran K. Reddy S. and Malik A. (2014) 'Reactive Oxygen Species in Inflammation and Tissue Injury', Antioxid. Redox. Signal, Vol. 20, No. 7, pp. 1126–1167.
[41]
Boots A., Li H., Schins R., Duffin R., Heemskerk J., Bast A. and Haenen G. (2007) 'The quercetin paradox', FEBS Lett., Vol. 222, pp. 89–96.
[42]
Parmar S., Shah N., Kasarwala M, Virpura M., Shah K. and Patel P. (2011) 'Determination of quercetin by hptlc method present in zymodyne syrup-A poly herbal formulation', IJPSR., Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 2724-2728.
[43]
Çelik N., Vurmaz A. and Kahraman A. (2017) 'Protective effect of quercetin on homocysteine-induced oxidative stress', Nutrition, Vol. 33, pp. 291-296.
[44]
Cushnie T. and Lamb A. (2005) 'Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids', Int. J. Antimicrob., Vol. 26, pp. 343–356.
[45]
Heijnen C., Haenen G., Oostveen R., Stalpers E. and Bast A. (2002) 'Protection of flavonoids against lipid peroxidation: the structure activity relationship revisited', Free Radic. Res., Vol. 36, pp. 575–581.
[46]
Moridani M., Pourahmad J., Bui H., Siraki A. and O’Brien P. (2003) 'Dietary flavonoid iron complexes as cytoprotective superoxide radical scavengers', Free Radic. Biol. Med., Vol. 34, pp. 245-253.
[47]
Comalada M., Camuesco D., Sierra S., Ballester I., Xaus J., Gálvez J. and Zarzuelo A. (2005) 'In vivo quercitrin anti-inflammatory effect involves release of quercetin, which inhibits inflammation through down-regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway', Eur. J. Immunol., Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 584-92.
[48]
Jama A., Mitić-Ćulafić D., Kolarević S., Đurašević S. and Knežević-Vukčević J. (2012) 'Protective effect of probiotic bacteria against cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rat hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro', Arch. Biol. Sci., Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 1197-1206.
[49]
Ouwehand A., Salminen S and Isolauri E. (2002) 'Probiotics: an overview of beneficial effects', A. Van Leeuw. J. Microb., Vol. 82, pp. 279–289.
[50]
Tong J., Ran Z., Shen J., Zhang C. and Xiao S. (2007) 'Meta-analysis: the effect of supplementation with probiotics on eradication rates and adverse events during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy', Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 155-168.
[51]
Shi X., Lindholm P. and Sarna S. (2003) 'NF-kappa B activation by oxidative stress and inflammation suppresses contractility in colonic circular smooth muscle cells', Gastroenterology, Vol. 124, pp. 1369-1380.
[52]
Hegazy S. and El-Bedewy M. (2010) 'Effect of probiotics on pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB activation in ulcerative colitis', World J. Gastroenterol., Vol. 16, No. 33, pp. 4145-4151.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931