Free Radical Scavenging Property of Picralima nitida Seed Extract on Malaria-Induced Albino Mice
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 125-133
Received: Mar. 3, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 28, 2017; Published: Sep. 21, 2017
Views 1615      Downloads 60
Authors
Nwankwo Nicodemus E., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
Nwodo Fred O. C., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
Joshua Parker E., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Antioxidants help to mop up free radicals that serious damage to the body system and hence are referred to as free radical scavengers. The main objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant property of ethanol seed extract of Picralima nitida in malaria-induce mice. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) were assayed; malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were determined. The levels of nitrite and MDA and the SOD activity of the drug-treated groups of mice were significantly (p < 0.05) lower on days 3 and 5 post treatment compared to the group induced with malaria but not treated (positive control). The MPO activity of the drug-treated groups of mice was significantly (p < 0.05) higher on day 3 post treatment while its activity in mice treated with 40 and 80 mg/kg b.w. of the extract were significantly (p < 0.05) lower on day 5 post treatment compared to the positive control. In the group treated with 80 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, the TrxR activity was significantly (p < 0.05) lower on days 3 and 5 post treatment compared to the positive control. Picralima nitida seed extract was found to possess good antioxidant properties.
Keywords
Antioxidants, Free Radicals, SOD, MDA, TrxR
To cite this article
Nwankwo Nicodemus E., Nwodo Fred O. C., Joshua Parker E., Free Radical Scavenging Property of Picralima nitida Seed Extract on Malaria-Induced Albino Mice, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 125-133. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20170505.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
S. Vertuani, A. Angusti, and S. Manfredini, “The antioxidants and pro-antioxidants network: An overview”, Curr Pharm Des, vol 10, no 14, pp. 1677-1694, 2004.
[2]
R. A. Miller, and B. E. Britigan, “Role of oxidants in microbial pathophysiology” Clin Microbiol Rev, vol 10, no 1, pp. 1-18, January, 1997.
[3]
J. Chaudiere, and R. Ferrari-Iliou, “Intracellular antioxidants: From chemical to biochemical mechanisms” Food and Chem Toxicol, vol 37, no 9-10, pp. 949-962, October, 1999.
[4]
H. Sies, “Oxidative Stress: Oxidants and Antioxidants”, Exp Physiol, vol 82, no 2, pp. 291-295, March, 1997.
[5]
P. Jha, F. Marcus, L. Eva, F. Michael, and Y. Salim, “The antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease: A criticl review of epidemiologic and clinical trial data” Ann Int Med, vol 123, no 11, pp. 860-872, 1995.
[6]
J. K. Baillie, A. A. R. Thompson, J. R. Irving, M. G. D. Bates, A. I. Sutherland, W. MacNee, S. R. J. Maxwell, and D. J. Webb, “Oral antioxidant supplementation does not prevent acute mountain sickness: double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial” Quart J Med, vol 5, pp. 341-348, 2009.
[7]
G. Bjelakoric, D. Nikolova, L. L. Gluud, R. G. Simonetti, and C. Gluud, “Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: Systemic review and metabolic analysis”, J Am Med Ass, vol 297, no 8, pp. 842-857, 2007.
[8]
W. Dabelstein, A. Reglitzky, A. Schütze, and K. Reders, “Automative fuels”, Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, retrieved on 4th September, 2014.
[9]
K. J. Davies (1995, Nov). Oxidative Stress: The Paradox of Aerobic Life: Biochemica Society Symposia vol 61, pp. 1-31, November, 1995.
[10]
S. G. Rhee, “Cell signalling: H2O2, a necessary evil for cell signaling” Science, vol 312, no 5782, pp. 1682-1694, 2006.
[11]
M. Valko, M. Izakovic, M. Mazur, C. J. Rhodes, and J. Telser, “Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence”, Mol Cel Biochem, vol 266, no 1-2, pp. 37-56, March 2004.
[12]
S. Stohs, and D. Bagchi, “Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions”, Free Rad Biol Med, vol 18, no 2, pp. 321-336, February, 1995.
[13]
Y. Nakabeppu, K. Sakumi, K. Sakamoto, D. Tsuchimoto, T. Tsuzuki, and Y. Nakatsu, “Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the oxidation of nucleic acids”, Biol Chem, vol 38, no 4, pp. 373-379, April, 2006.
[14]
G. Lenaz, “The mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species: Mechanisms and implications in human pathology”, IUBMB Life, vol 52, no 3-5, pp. 159-164, January, 2008.
[15]
B. Demming-Adams, and W. W. Adam, “Antioxidants in photosynthesis and human nutrition”, Science, vol 298, no 5601, pp. 2149-2153, December, 2002.
[16]
A. Krieger, “Singlet oxygen production in photosynthesis”, J Exp Bot, vol 56, no 411, pp. 337-346, August, 2004.
[17]
F. C. Küpper, I. J. Carpenter, G. B. Mc Figgans, C. J. Palmer, T. J. Waite, E. M. Boneberg, S. Woitsh, M. Weiller, R. Abela, D. Grolimund, P. Potin, A. Butler, G. W. Luther III, P. M. H. Kroneck, W. Meyer-Klaucke, and M. C. Feiters, “Iodine accumulation provides help with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol 105, no 19,, pp. 6954-6958, March, 2008.
[18]
I. M Zelko, T. and R. Folz. Superoxide dismutase multegene family: A comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2) and EC-SOD (SOD3) gene structures, evolution, and expression. Free Rad Biol and Med, vol 33, no 3, pp 337- 349, August 2002.
[19]
F. Johnson and C. Giulivic. Superoxide dismutases and their impact upon human health. Mol Aspects Med, vol 26, no 4-5, pp 340-352, 2005.
[20]
K. Dale (2006). Superoxide dismutase boosting the body’s primary antioxidant defense. Life Extension Magazine, 2006, Retrieved on 26th August, 2014.
[21]
J. Arnold and J. Flemming. Human myeloperoxidase in innate and acquired immunity. Arch Biochem Biophys, vol 500, pp 92-106, 2010.
[22]
M. J. Davies, C. L. Hawkins, D. I. Pattison and M. D. Rees. Mammalian haeme peroxidases: from molecular mechanism to health implications. Antioxid Redox Signaling, vol 10: 1199-1234, 2008.
[23]
B. Zouaoui, I. Legssyer, P. Van Antwerpen, R. L. Kisoka, S. Babar, N. Moguilevsky, P. Delree, J. Ducobu, C. Remacle, M. Vanhaeverbeck and D Brohee. Triggering of inflammatory response by myeloperoxidase-oxidized LDL. Biochem Cell Biol, vol 84, pp 805-812, 2006.
[24]
D. Calay, A. Rousseau, L. Mattart, V. Nuyens, C. Delporte, P. Van Antwerpen, N. Moguilevsky, T. Arnould, K. Z. Boudjeltia and M. Raes. Copper and myeloperoxidase-modified LDLs activate Nrf 2 through different pathways of ROS production in macrophages. Antioxid Redox Signaling, vol 13, pp 1491-1502, October 2010.
[25]
C. H. Jr., Williams, L. D. Arscott, S. Muller, B. W. Lennon, M. L. Ludwig, P. E. Wang, D. M. Veiner, K Becker and R. H. Schirmer. Thioredoxin reductase: Two modes of catalysis have evolved. Eur J Biochem, vol 267, pp 6100-6117, October 2000.
[26]
G. Waksman, T. S. R. Krishma, C. H. Jr., Williams and J. Kuriyan. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase refined at 2 Å resolution. Implications for a large conformational change during catalysis. J Mol Biol, vol 236, pp 800-816, February 1994.
[27]
M. Akif, K. Suhre, K. Verma and S. C. Mande. Conformational flexibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thioredoxin reductase: Crystal structure and normal mode of analysis. Acta Cryst, D61, pp 1601-1603, September 2005.
[28]
B. O. George, J. Okpoghono, E. Osioma and O. O. Aina. Changes in oxidative indices in Plasmodium berghei infected mice treated with aqueous extract of Aframomum sceptrum. Frontiers in Science, vol 2, no 1, pp 6-9, 2012.
[29]
S. J. Klebanoff, A. J. Kettle, H. Rosen, C. C. Winterbourn and W. M. Nauseef. Myeloperoxidase: A front-line defender against phagocytosed microorganisms, J Leuk Biol, vol 93, no 2, pp 185-198, February 2013.
[30]
D. S. Ashour, Z. S. Shoheib, A. A. Abdeen. Artesunate effect on Schistosome thioredoxin glutathione reductase and cytochrom c peroxidase as new molecular targets in Schistosoma mansonii-infected mice, PUJ, vol 5, pp 155-164, June 2012.
[31]
T. O. Sunmonu, O. B. Oloyede, T. A. Owolarafe, M. T. Yakubu, O. O. Dosumu. Toxicopathological evaluation of Picralima nitida seed aqueous extract in Wistar rats, Turk J Biochem, vol 39, no 2, pp 119–125, 2014
[32]
O. Erharuyi, A. Falodun, and P. Langer, “Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) in tropical diseases: A review” Asian Pac J Trop Med, vol. 1, no 1, pp. 1-8, January, 2014.
[33]
O. C. U. Adumanya, C. N. Osuji, G. A. Obi-adumanya, and T. O. Akunna, “Antiplasmodial effect of some medicinal plants (Picralima nitida and Dialium guineense) and their combination with artesunate”, Int. J. A. PS. BMS, vol. 2, no 4, pp. 189-194, 2013.
[34]
E. E. Ilodigwe, I. C. Urukwem, D. L. Ajaghaku, I. S. Mbagwu, and C. A. Agbata, “Acute and subchronic toxicities of aqueous antidiabetic herbal decoction commonly taken in South Eastern Nigeria”, Int J Res Pharm and Biomed Scs, vol 4, no 4, pp. 1256-1263, 2013.
[35]
A. R. Bos, R. Weaver, and D. Ross. Characterization and quantification of the peroxidase in human neutrophils, Biochem et Biophys Acta, vol 525, pp 4133-4141, 1990.
[36]
I. Fridovich, Superoxide dismutase: An adaptation to a pragmatic gas. J Biol Chem, vol 264, pp. 7762-7764, May 1989.
[37]
A. Holmgren, and T. M. Bjorsnstedt, “Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase”, Method Enzymol J, vol 252, pp. 199-208, 1995.
[38]
B. Wallin, B. Rosengren, H. G. Shetzer, G. Cameja, “Lipid oxidation and measurement of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) formation in a single microtitre plate: Its use for evaluation of antioxidants”, Anal Biochem, pp. 10-15, January, 1993.
[39]
S. Sanai, M. Tomisato, N. Shinsuka, Y. Mayoko, H. Mayoko, and N. Akio, “Protective role of nitric oxide in S. aurues infection in mice”, Infect Immunol, vol 66, pp. 1017-1028, 1998.
[40]
B. A. Liden, “Vashe wound therapy” Podiatry Manage, vol 1, no 1, pp. 121-124, December, 2008.
[41]
M. N. Saraf, R. Shirole, L. B. Badgujar, and A. Kshatriya, “Biochemical and cellular correlates of embelin against bacterial endotoxin induced airway inflammation”, Frontier Immunoloogy, August 2013, Conference Abstract: 15th International Congress of Immunology, Milan, Italy.
[42]
I. Zelko, T. Mariani, and R. Folz, “Superoxide dismutase multigene family: A comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2) and EC-SOD (SOD3) gene structures, evolution, and expression”, Free Rad Biol Med, vol 33, no 3, pp. 337- 349, August, 2002.
[43]
B. O. George, J. Okpoghono, E. Osioma, and O. O. Aina, “Changes in oxidative indices in Plasmodium berghei infected mice treated with aqueous extract of Aframomum sceptrum”, Frontiers in Science, vol 2, no 1, pp. 6-9, 2012.
[44]
T. Satyajit, P. C. Subhankari, and R. Somenath, “Superoxide radical generation mediated Plasmodium berghei infection in Swiss mice” AJMS, vol 5, no 1, pp. 69-81, 2012.
[45]
M. K. Shadia, M. M. Azza, M. F. Ebtehal, and B. F. Dalia, “Influence of some micronutrients and Citharexylum quadrangular extract against liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice”, Afr J Pharm Pharmacol, vol 7, no 38, pp. 2628-2638, October, 2013.
[46]
T. P. Prohp, and T. O. Onoagbe, “Effects of extracts of Triplochiton scleroxylon (K. Schum) on plasma glucose and lipid peroxidation in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats” J Physiol Pharmacol Adv, vol 2, no 12, pp. 380-388, 2012.
[47]
T. O. Fakeye, O. A. Itiola, and H. A. Odelola, “Evaluation of the antimicrobial property of the stem bark of Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae)”, Phytother Res, vol 14, no 5, pp. 368-370, August, 2000.
[48]
H. Kroupova, J. Machova, and Z. Svododova, “Nitrite influence of fish: A review”, Vet Med-Czech, vol 50, no 11, pp. 461-471, November, 2005.
[49]
J. W. Calvert, D. J. Lefer, “Myocardial protection by nitrite”, Cardiovascular Research, vol 83, pp. 195-203, February, 2009.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
548 FASHION AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10018
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-688-8931