Effect of Combination between Bioagents and Antioxidants on Management of Tomato Powdery Mildew
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6-2, December 2014, Pages: 26-32
Received: Nov. 18, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 21, 2014;
Published: Nov. 25, 2014
Views 3166 Downloads 205
Abada K. A., Plant Pathol, Dept., Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt
M. A. Ahmed, Plant Pathol, Dept., Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., Giza, Egypt
Isolation of microorganisms occurring on the phyllopane of tomato leaves yielded many Basillus and Trichoderma strains. The isolated Bacillus spp. were purified and identified as B. chitinosporus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis and the isolated Trichoderma spp. were, T. album, T. hamatum, T. koningii, T. harzianum and T.veredi. All the tested Bacillus and Trichoderma strains caused significant inhibition to the germinated conidia of Leveillula taurica (imperfect stage = Oidiopsis taurica) the causal of tomato powdery mildew compared with control treatment. In addition, B. thuringiensis B. subtilis and B. chitinosporus were the most efficient bacteria in this regard and T. harzianum and T. veredi were the most efficient fungi. The inducer resistance chemicals (IRCs) bion, chitosan, humic acid, salicylic acid and zinc sulphate resulted in significant reduction to the germinated conidia of the causal fungus compared with control treatment. This reduction was gradually increased by increasing the tested concentration. In plastic house experiments, spraying tomato plants with the tested bioagents B. thuringiensis and T. harzianum and the IRC salicylic acid resulted in significant reduction to powdery mildew severity during 2012/2013 and 2013/ 2014 growing seasons. Spraying of the bioagents B.thuringiensis and T. harzianum and the IRC salicylic acid, each alone or in different combinations, resulted in significant reduction to the severity of the disease with significant increase to the produced fruit yield. Furthermore, spraying any of these compounds alone was of less effect in this regard compared with spraying their combinations. However, the fungicide Sumi-8 was the superior in this regard, being 3.7 % disease severity and fruit yield 16.2 k g. / plant followed by the mixture of the three treatments, being 4.6% disease severity and fruit yield 13.7 kg. / plant. The three oxidative-reductive enzymes, i.e. PAL, PO and PPO were greatly increased in the leaves of all sprayed treatments compared with control treatment. In addition, plants sprayed with salicylic acid recorded the highest activity of the three enzymes followed by that sprayed with B. thuringiensis then T. harzianum. Meanwhile, untreated leaves (control) recorded the lowest activity followed by that sprayed with Sumi-8.
Abada K. A.,
M. A. Ahmed,
Effect of Combination between Bioagents and Antioxidants on Management of Tomato Powdery Mildew, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue: Role of Combination Between Bioagents and Solarization on Management of Crown-and Stem-Rot of Egyptian Clover.
Vol. 2, No. 6-2,
2014, pp. 26-32.
Akram, W.; Mahboob, A and Javel A.A.(2013). Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Europ.J. of Mirobiol. and Immunol., 275-280.
Bissett J. (1991). A revision of the genus Trichoderma. W: Infragenic classification. Can. J. Bot., 69:2357-2317.
Burrell M.M. and Rees T.A. (1974). Metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine in rice leaves infected by Pyricularia oryzae. Physiol Plant Pathol., 4: 497–508.
Cerkauskas, R. F.; Ferguson G. and Banik M. (2011). Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) on greenhouse and field peppers in Ontario – host range, cultivar response and disease management strategies. Canad. J. of Plant Pathol., 33(4): 485-498.
Dean R.A. and Kuc J.(1985). Induced systemic protection in plants .Trends Biotechnol., 3: 125-128.
Domsch K.H.; Gams W. and Anderson T.H. (1980). Compendium of Soil Fungi. Vol. 1 and 2, Academic press. London.
Doubrava N.; Dean R . And Kuc J. (1988). Induction of systemic resistance to anthracnose caused by Colltetrichum lagenarum from spinach and hubar leaves. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol., 33: 60-70.
Farkas L. and Kiraly L. (1967). Role of phenolic compounds in the physiology of plant disease and disease resistance. Phytopathol.Z., 40: 106-150.
Fisher R.A. (1948). Statistical Methods 6th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Fu J. and Huang B. (2001).Involvement of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the adaptation of two cool-season grasses to localized drought stress. Environ Exp. Bot., 45(2):105–114.
Hannah J.; John M.W. and Jans,Sarah G. (2001).The tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidiumneo lycopersici. Molecul. Plant Pathol., 2(6): 303–309.
Holt J.G. and Krieg N.R.(1984). Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA.
Horsfall H.A.J. and Barratt R.W.(1945).An improved gardening system for measuring plant diseases. Phytopathology, 35:655.
Hulme A.C. (1970).The biochemistry of fruits and their products.A.R.C. Food Res.Instit., England Cad.Press,London and New York.620 pp.
Iriti M. and Faoro, F.(2003). Benzothiadiazole (BTH): Induces cell-death independent resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris against Uromyces appendiculatus. J. of Phytopathol, 151(3): 171-180.
Jones B.J.; Zitter T. A., Momol T.M. and Miller, Sally A. (2014). Compendium of Tomato Diseases and Pests. Second Edition. The American Phytopathological Society, 179 pp.
Karkanis A.; Bilalis D.; Efthimiadou A. and Katsenios N. (2012). Effects of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) and powdery mildew [Leveillula taurica (Lev.) Arn.] on pepper growth and yield. Hort. Sci., 39(3): 135–138
Kessmann H. ; Sataub T.; Hofmann C.; Meatzke T. and Herzog J.(1994). Induction of systemic acquired disease resistance in plants by chemicals. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 32: 439-459.
Kosuge T. (1996). The role of phenolics in host response to infection to infection. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 7:195–222.
Larcke P. (1981). Alternative chemical agents for controlling plant diseases. Phil. Trans. Res. Soc., 2: 83- 101.
Mayer A.M.; Harel E. and Shaul R. B. (1965). Assay of catechol oxidase a critical comparison of methods. Phytochem., 5:783–789.
McGrath, Margret, T. (2001).Fungicide resistance in cucurbit powdery mildew. Plant Dis., 85(3): 236- 250.
Melo G.A.; Shimizu M. M. and Mazzafera P. (2006). Polyphenoloxidase activity in coffee leaves and its role in resistance against the coffee leaf miner and coffee leaf rust. Phytochemistry., 67: 277-285.
Metranx J. D. and Boller T. (1986). Local and systemic induction of chitinase in cucumber plants in response to fungal, bacterial and viral infections. Physiol. Mol. Pathol., 28: 161-169.
Morkunas I. and Gemerek J. (2007). The possible involvement of peroxidase in defense of yellow lupine embryo axes against Fusarium oxysporum. J. Plant Physiol., 164: 497-506.
Oedjijono, M. A. L. and Dragar, C. (1993). Isolation of bacteria antagonistic to a range of plant pathogenic fungi. Soil Biol. Biochem., 25: 247–250.
Parry, J.M.; Turnbull P.C.B. and Gibson J.R. (1983). A colour atlas of Bacillus species, Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd.
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran W.G. (1967).Statistical Methods.6th Ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Scott-Carig J.S.; Kerby K.B.; Stein B.D. and Somerville S.C. (1995). Expression of an extracellular peroxidase that is induced in barley (Hordium vulgar) by powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) Physol. Mol. Plant Pathol., 47: 407–418.
Sheikh L.I.; Dawar S.; Zaki M.J. and Ghaffar A. (2006). Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis and Rhizobium meliloti with nursery fertilizers in the control of root infecting fungi on mung bean and okra plants. Pak J Bot., 38:465–473.
Terhardt J. (1998). Bee influssung mikrobieller Gemein-schaften der Rhizosphärenach Blattbehandlung von Pflanzen und biologische Kontrolle von Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici und Meloidogyne incognita mitbakteriellen Anatgonisten. Ph.D. Thesis, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Yan Z.; Reddy M.S. and Kloepper J.W. (2003). Survival and colonization of rhizobacteria in a tomato transplant system. Can. J. Microbiol., 49(6):383–389.