Steroid Hormones as Transporters to Carry Exogenous Macromolecules into the Target Cell Nuclei in Vivo
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3-2, May 2015, Pages: 53-57
Received: Jan. 29, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 1, 2015; Published: May 6, 2015
Views 4425      Downloads 74
Author
Toshikazu Nishimura, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Yazako, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Upon injection into the vascular system of rats, testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugate (testosterone-BSA) is taken up by cells via the process of endocytosis. When it is taken up by the target cells of testosterone such as spermatogenic cells, it enters the nuclei of the cells. However, testosterone-BSA does not enter the nuclei of the non-target cells such as hepatocytes and thymocytes. Similarly, hydrocortisone-BSA conjugate enters the nuclei of its target cells such as hepatocytes and thymocytes. In the vesicular trafficking of testosterone-BSAs into the nucleoplasm, the vesicle membrane is likely to fuse with a nuclear hemifusion diaphragm. IgG coupled with hydrocortisone also enters the hormone-target cell nuclei, with its antigenicity kept intact. These results suggest that steroid hormones could act as transporters for conveying exogenous macromolecules into the target cell nuclei in vivo. Our studies provide a novel insight to the functions of steroid hormones.
Keywords
Steroid-Protein Conjugates, Vesicular Trafficking, Nuclear Diaphragm, Target Cell Nuclei, Intact Antigenicity, In Vivo
To cite this article
Toshikazu Nishimura, Steroid Hormones as Transporters to Carry Exogenous Macromolecules into the Target Cell Nuclei in Vivo, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue:Biology and Medicine of Peptide and Steroid Hormones. Vol. 3, No. 3-2, 2015, pp. 53-57. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2015030302.20
References
[1]
Horton RJ. Testicular steroid transport, metabolism, and effects. In Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism (K.L. Becker, J.P. Bilezikian, D.L. Loriaux, W.J. Bremner, RW Rebar, W Hung, GL Robertson, CR Kahn and L Wartofsky, eds.) J B Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1990, pp937-942.
[2]
Pardridge WM. Selective delivery of sex steroid hormones to tissues in vivo by albumin and by sex hormone-binding globulin. Ann. NY Acad Sci 1988; 538: 173-192.
[3]
Jensen EV and DeSombre ER. Mechanism of action of the female sex hormones. Ann Rev Biochem, 1972; 41: 203- 230.
[4]
Revelli A, Massobrio M, Tesarik J. Nongenomic actions of steroid hormones in reproductive tissues. Endocine Rev 1998; 19: 3-17
[5]
Wehling M. Specific, nongenomic actions of steroid hormones. Annu Rev Physiol 1997; 59: 365-393
[6]
Hummeler K, Tomassini N, Sokol F. Morphological aspects of the uptake of simian virus 40 by permissive cells. J Virol 1970; 6: 87-93.
[7]
Maul GG, Rovera G, Vorbrodt A, Abramczuk J. Membrane fusion as a mechanism of simian virus 40 entry into different cellular compartments. J Virol 1978; 28: 936-944.
[8]
Nishimura T, Kawai N, Kawai M, Notake K, Ichihara I. Fusion of SV40-induced endocytotic vacuoles with the nuclear membrane. Cell Struct Funct 1986; 11: 135-141.
[9]
Pinto da Silva P, Nogueira ML. Membrane fusion during secretion. a hypothesis based on electron microscope observation of Phytophthora Palmivora zoospores during encystment. J Cell Biol 1977; 73: 161-181.
[10]
Kalderon N, Gilula NB. Membrane events involved in myoblast fusion. J Cell Biol 1979; 81: 411-425.
[11]
Chernomordik LV, Kozlov MM. Membrane hemifusion: crossing a chasm in two leaps. Cell 2005; 123: 375-382.
[12]
Nishimura T, Kawai N, Ichihara I. Interaction of endocytotic vacuoles with the inner nuclear membrane in simian virus 40 entry into CV-1 cell nucleus. Cell Struct Funct 1991; 16: 441-445.
[13]
Lanford RE, Kanda P, Kennedy RC. Induction of nuclear transport with a synthetic peptide homologous to the SV40 T antigen transport signal. Cell 1986; 46; 575-82.
[14]
Yamaizumi M, Uchida T, Okada Y, Furusawa M, Mitsui H. Rapid transfer of non-histone chromosomal proteins to the nucleus of living cells. Nature 1978; 273: 782-4.
[15]
Yoneda Y, Hieda M, Nagoshi E, Miyamoto Y. Nucleocytoplasmic protein transport and recycling of Ran. Cell Struct Funct 1999; 24: 425-433.
[16]
Furusawa M, Nishimura T, Yamaizumi M, Okada Y. Injection of exogenous substances into single cells by cell fusion. Nature 1974; 249: 449-50.
[17]
Nishimura T, Furusawa M, Yamaizumi M, Okada Y. Method for intracellular injection by cell fusion using erythrocyte ghosts. Cell Struct Funct 1976; 1: 197-200.
[18]
Furusawa M, Yamaizumi M, Nishimura T, Uchida T, Okada Y. Use of erythrocyte ghosts for injection of substances into animal cells by cell fusion. Methods Cell Biol 1976; 14: 73-80.
[19]
Ichihara I, Santti RS, Pelliniemi LJ. Effects of testosterone, hydrocortisone and insulin on the fine structure of the epithelium of rat ventral prostate in organ culture. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat 1973; 143: 425-38.
[20]
Ramirez VD, Zheng J. Membrane sex-steroid receptors in the brain. Front Neuroendocrinol 1996; 17: 402-439.
[21]
Rao BR, Patrick TB, Sweet F. Steroid-albumin conjugate interaction with steroid-binding proteins. Endocrinology 1980; 106: 356-362.
[22]
Pietras RJ, Szego CM. Specific internalization of estrogen and binding to nuclear matrix in isolated uterine cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1984; 123: 84-91.
[23]
Gerard A, En Nya A, Egloff M, Domingo M, Degrelle H, and Gerard H. Endocytosis of human sex steroid-binding protein in monkey germ cells. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1991; 637: 258-276.
[24]
Gerard H, Gerard A, En Nya A, Felden F, and Gueant JL. Spermatogenic cells do internalize Sertoli androgen-binding protein: A transmission electron microscopy autoradiographic study in the rat. Endocrinology 1994; 134: 1515- 1527.
[25]
Nishimura T, Ichihara I. Nuclear concentration of gold labeled-testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugate injected intravenously in the hormone-target cells of rat. Cell Struct Funct 1997; 22: 433-442.
[26]
Nishimura T, Nakano T. Nuclear translocation of gold labeled-testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugate through the nuclear double membranes in rat spermatids. Cell Struct Funct 1997; 22: 621-629.
[27]
Nishimura T, Nakano T. Nuclear localization of gold labeled-hydrocortisone-bovine serum albumin conjugate injected intravenously into the hormone-target cells of rat. Cell Struct Funct 1999; 24: 227-35.
[28]
Dym M. The male reproductive system. In: Weiss L (ed) Cell and Tissue Biology. A Textbook of Histology, Urban & Schwarzenberg Inc., Baltimore Munich, 1988, pp 929-972
[29]
Fawcett DW, Raviola E. Male reproductive system. In: Bloom and Fawcett, a textbook of histology, 12th edn. Chapman & Hall, New York, 1994, pp 768-815
[30]
Nishimura T, Nakano T. Vesicles in the subacrosomal space and partial diaphragms in the subacrosomal nuclear envelope of round spermatids of a rat injected intravenously with gold labeled-testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugate: vesicular trafficking from acrosome to nucleus. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn 2002; 79: 15-23.
[31]
Nishimura T, Nakano T. Immunocytochemical localization of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the liver and testis of rats injected with testosterone-BSA, hydrocortisone-BSA or corticosterone-BSA. Cell Struct Funct 2000; 25: 161-169.
[32]
Yamaizumi M, Uchida T, Takamatsu K, Okada Y. Intracellular stability of diphtheria toxin fragment A in the presence and absence of anti-fragment A antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982; 79: 461-5.
[33]
Nishimura T, Nakano T. Nuclear localization of bovine immunoglobulin G (bIgG) in the liver of rats injected with hydrocortisone-bIgG conjugate intravenously. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn 2001; 78: 107-114.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186