Effect of the Combination Between Bioagents and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) on Management of Uromyces Pisi the Causal of Pea Rust
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 3-1, May 2017, Pages: 15-23
Received: Oct. 29, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 23, 2016; Published: Feb. 14, 2017
Views 2676      Downloads 62
Authors
Zyton Marwa A., Plant Pathol Dept., Fac. Agric., Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Eman O. Hassan, Plant Pathol Dept., Fac. Agric. at Moshtohor, Benha University, Banha, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Antagonistic bioagents naturally occurring on pea leaves free from rust infection were isolated and evaluated for their antagonism against Uromyces pisi, the causal of rust. Isolates of both Bacillus spp., i.e. Bacillus chitinosporus, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. subtilis and Trichoderma spp., i.e. Trichoderma album, T. hamatum, T. harzianum and T. viride were selected, purified and identified The inhibitory effect of these isolates was assessed in vitro on the germination of the urediospores of the causal fungus. The inhibitory effect of Bacillus spp. ranged between 31.9-42.4% and Trichoderma spp. between 34.9-53.5%. In addition, B. thuringiensis recorded the highest inhibition to the urediospores of the causal fungus followed by B. megaterium then B. subtilis and B. chitinosporus. Meanwhile, T. viride gave the highest inhibition followed by T. harzianum then T. hamatum and T. album. The tested antioxidant, i.e. bion (BTH), chitosan and salicylic acid caused significant reduction to the germinated urediospores of U. pisi compared with the control. This reduction was gradually increased by increasing the concentration. In addition, BTH was the most efficient one in this regard. Under greenhouse conditions spraying of pea plants with any of Bacillus spp. and Trichoderma spp., 48 h. before inoculation with U. pisi on the grown plants from seeds soaked or not in 20 mM of BTH significantly reduced the severity of the disease in the range of 4.0 – 5.4, 12.0-15.8%, respectively compared with the control (48.7%). Soaking pea seeds in BTH before sowing was best method than un-soaked seeds in BTH for managing the disease. The fungicide Topas was the superior treatment followed by B. thuringiensis then T. viride in reducing rust severity and increasing the number of the produced green pods and their weight / plant compared with control. All the tested bioagents, BTH and the fungicide Topas resulted in considerable increase to sugars and phenol contents of pea leaves compared with the control., BTH was always more effective more than the tested bioagents and the fungicide Topas in this regard. Total nitrogen, the concentration of the total free amino acids and the percentages of crude protein in the seeds of Master B pea cv. were greatly increased due to spraying the tested bioagents, BTH and the fungicide Topas compared with the control. BTH was the superior treatment in increasing these components followed by the tested bioagents then the fungicide Topas. In addition, B. thuringiensis and T. viride were the best bioagents in increasing of these components.
Keywords
Pea, Antioxidants, Bacillus spp., Trichoderma spp., Biological Control, Topas, Uromyces pisi, Sugars, Phenol Compounds, Total Nitrogen, Total Amino Acids, Crude Protein
To cite this article
Zyton Marwa A., Eman O. Hassan, Effect of the Combination Between Bioagents and Benzothiadiazole (BTH) on Management of Uromyces Pisi the Causal of Pea Rust, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue: Environmental Toxicology. Vol. 5, No. 3-1, 2017, pp. 15-23. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2017050301.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Abada, K. A.; Saber, M. M. and Mostafa, M. A. (1997). Control of pea rust disease under Egyptian conditions. 8th Cong. of the Egypt. Phytopathol. Soc. Cairo, 199-209.
[2]
Abada K. A. and Ahmed M. A. (2014). Management tomato powdery mildew pepper by Bacillus strains. The Amer. J. of Life Sciences, 2 (3): 19-25.
[3]
Abd-El-Khair, H. R.; Khalifa, K. M. and Haggag, Karima H. E. (2010). Effect of Trichoderma spp. on damping off diseases incidence, some plant enzymes activity and nutritional status of bean plants. J. Amer. Sci., 6 (9): 486-497.
[4]
Abo-Shosha, Yosra, Z. (2016). Biological control of bean root diseases under organic farming. Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Agic., Cairo Univ.
[5]
Akram, W.; Mahboob, A. and Javel, A. A. (2013). Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Europ. J. of Mirobiol. and Immunol., 275-280.
[6]
Barakat, F. M.; Abada K. A.; Abou-Zeid, N. M. and El-Gammal, Y. H. E. (2014). Effect of volatile and non-volatile compou-nds of Trichoderma spp. on Botrytis fabae the causative agent of faba bean chocolate spot. Amer. J. of Life Sciences, 47: 1-11.
[7]
Barilli, E.; Diego, R.; Carmine, A.; Antonio, E. and Prats, Elena. (2015). BTH and BABA induce resistance in pea against rust (Uromyces pisi) involving differential phytoalexin accumulation. Planta 242 (5): 1095-1106. doi: 10.1007/s 00425- 015-2339-8.
[8]
Bhattacharjee, R. and Dey, U. (2014). An overview of fungal and bacterial biopesticides to control plant pathogens / diseases. Afr. J. of Microbiol. Res., 8 (17): 1749-1762.
[9]
Bissett, J. (1991). A revision of the genus Trichoderma. W: Infragenic classification. Can. J. Bot., 69: 2357-2317.
[10]
Brain, P. W. and Hemming, H. G. (1945). Gliotoxin a fungistatic metabolic product of Trichoderma viride. Ann. Appl. Biol., 32: 214–220.
[11]
Brewer, M. T. and Larkin, R. P. (2005). Efficacy of several potential biocontrol organisms against Rhizoctonia solani on potato. Crop Protec., 24: 939-950.
[12]
Deshmukh, A. J.; Mehta, B. P. and Patil, V. A. (2010). In vitro evaluation of some known bioagents to control Collectotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, and Sacc, causing Anthracnose of Indian bean. Inter. J. Pharma. and Bio. Sci., 1 (2) 1-6.
[13]
Farkas L. and Kiraly L. (1967). Role of phenolic compounds in the physiology of plant disease and disease resistance. Phytopathol. Z., 40: 106-150.
[14]
Fisher, R. A. (1948). Statistical Methods 6th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
[15]
Goldschmidt, E. E.; Goren, R. and Monselise, S. P. (1968). The IAA oxidase system of citrus roots. Planta, 72: 213-222.
[16]
Gupta, S. K. and K. R. Shayam, K. R. (1998). Control of powdery mildew and rust of pea by fungicides. Indian Phytopathol., 51: 184-186.
[17]
Hafez, A. and Mikkelsen, D. S. (1981). Colorimetric determination of nitrogen for evaluating the nutritional status of rice. Comm. Soil. Sci. Plant Anal., 12 (1): 61 – 69.
[18]
Hagedron, D. J. (editor) (1984). Compendium of pea diseases. St. Paul. Minnesota: American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN. 57pp.
[19]
Heydari, A. and Pessarakli, M. (2010). A review on biological control of fungal plant pathogens using microbial antagonists. J. of Biol. Sci., 10: 273-290.
[20]
Holt J. G. and Krieg N. R. (1984). Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA.
[21]
Junid, J. M.; Dar, N. A.; Baht, T. A.; Baht, A. H. and Baht, M. A.(2013). Commercial biocontrol agents and their mechanism of action in the management of plant pathogens. Inter. J. of Modern Plant and Animal Scis., 2013, 1 (2): 39-57.
[22]
Kraft, J. M. and Pfleger, F. L. (2001). Compendium of Pea Diseases and Pests, Second Edition. The American Phytopathological Society. 110 pp.
[23]
Lattanzio, V.; Lattanzio, Veronica M. T. and Cardinali, Angela (2006). Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. Phytochemistry: Advances in Research, 23-67.
[24]
Mayee, C. D. and Datar. V. V (1986). Phytopathometry. Technical Bulletin-1 (Special Bulletin 3), Marathwada Agric. Univ. Parbhani. 218p.
[25]
Mayer, A. M.; Harel E. and Shaul R. B. (1965). Assay of catechol oxidase a critical comparison of methods. Phytochemistry, 5: 783–789.
[26]
Melo, G. A.; Shimizu. M. M. and Mazzafera, P. (2006). Polyphenoloxidase activity in coffee leaves and its role in resistance against the coffee leaf miner and coffee leaf rust.Phytochemistry, 67: 277-285.
[27]
Moore, S. and Stein, W. H. (1954). A modified ninhydrin reagent for photometric determination of amino acids and related compounds. J. Biol. Chem., 211: 907-913.
[28]
Morkunas I. and Gemerek J. (2007). The possible involvement of peroxidase in defense of yellow lupine embryo axes against Fusarium oxysporum. J. Plant Physiol., 164: 497-506.
[29]
Musloco, A; Felicim, M.; Concheri, G. and Nardi, S. (1993). Effect of earthworm humic substances on esterase and peroxidase activity during growth of leaf explants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Biol. and Fert. of Soils, 15, 127-131.
[30]
Nagendra, B. and Kumar, Prasad, M. R. (2011). Effect of non-volatile compounds produced by Trichoderma spp. on growth and sclerotial viability of Rhizoctonia solani, incitant of sheath blight of rice. Indian J. Funda. Appl. Life Sci., 1 (2) 37-42.
[31]
Oedjijono, M. A. L. and Dragar, C. (1993). Isolation of bacteria antagonistic to a range of plant pathogenic fungi. Soil Biol. Biochem., 25: 247–250.
[32]
Osbourn, A. E. (1996). Preformed antimicrobial compounds and plant defense against fungal attack. Plant Cell, 8 (10): 1821-1831.
[33]
Parry, J. M.; Turnbull P. C. B. and Gibson J. R. (1983). A colour atlas of Bacillus species, Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd. 390-396.
[34]
Pfunder, M. and Roy, B. (2000). Pollinator-mediated interactions between a pathogenic fungus, Uromyces pisi (Pucciniaceae), and its host plant, Euphorbia cyparissias (Euphorbiaceae). Amer. J. of Bot., 87 (1): 48–55.
[35]
Raaijmakers, J. M.; Vlami. M. and de Souza, J. T. (2002) Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 81: 537–547.
[36]
Ragab, Mona M. M.; Abada, K. A.; Abd-El-Moneim, Maisa L. and, Abo-Shosha, Yosra Z. (2015). Effect of different mixtures of some bioagents and Rhizobium phaseoli on bean damping-off under field condition. Inter. J. of Sci. and Eng. Res., 6 (7): 1009-1106.
[37]
Raupach, G. S. and Kloepper, J. W. (1998). Mixtures of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens. Phytopathology, 88: 1158–1164. Rifai, M. A. (1969). A revision of the genus Trichoderma. Mycological Papers, 116: 1-56.
[38]
Rifai, M. A. (1969). A revision of the genus Trichoderma. Mycological Papers, 116: 1-56.
[39]
Shoda, M. (2000). Bacterial control of plant diseases. J. of Biosci. and Bioengi., 8 (6): 515-521.
[40]
Simons, T. J. and Ross, A. F. (1971). Change in phenol metabolism with induced systemic resistance in tobacco mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 61: 1261-1265.
[41]
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran W. G. (1967). Statistical Methods. 6th Ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
[42]
Svetlana, Z.; Stojanovic, S.; Ivanovic, Z.; Gavrilovic, V.; Tatjana, P. and Jelica Balaz (2010). Screening of antagonistic activity of microorganisms against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Arch. of Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 62 (3): 611-623.
[43]
Thomas, W. and R. A. Dutcher (1924). The colorimetric determination of carbohydrates in plants by the picric acid reduction method. I. The estimation of reducing sugars and sucrose. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 46: 1662-1669.
[44]
Van Peer R.; Niemann G. N. and Schippers B. (1991). Induced resistance and phytoalexin accumulation in biological control of Fusarium wilt in carnation by Pseudomonas sp. strain WCS417r. Phytopathology, 81: 728–734.
[45]
Waterman P. G. and Mole S. (1994). Analysis of Phenolic Plant Metabolites. London: Blackwell Sci. Publ., Method in Ecology.
[46]
Zaher, Effat A.; Abada, K. A. and Zyton, Marwa A. (2013). Effect of combination between bioagents and solarization on management of crown-and stem-rot of Egyptian clover. J. of Plant Sci., 1 (3): 43-50.
[47]
Zimand, G.; Elad. Y. and Chet, I. (1996). Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Botrytis cinerea pathogenicity. Phytopathology, 86: 11, 12551260.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186