Biochemical and Histological Effects of Glyphosate on the Liver of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.)
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 3-1, May 2017, Pages: 71-80
Received: Apr. 10, 2017; Accepted: Apr. 11, 2017; Published: Apr. 27, 2017
Views 1649      Downloads 64
Authors
V. Bawa, Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India
J. K. Kondal, Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India
S. S. Hundal, Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India
Harpinder Kaur, Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Glyphosate is an active ingredient of Roundup®, a herbicide which is extensively used for agricultural applications and control of vegetation in non-crop areas often leading to its runoff from sites of application into water bodies posing serious threat to non-target species including fish. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate on the liver of freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) after calculating the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate (Roundup®41% SL) which was 3.260 ppm. The fish fingerlings having mean wt. 3g ±0.5 and mean length 5.5cm ±0.35 were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of glyphosate i.e. 25% of LC50 (T1) and 50% of LC50 (T2) for a period of 28 days. Total soluble proteins, lipids and enzymatic activities of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were recorded at weekly intervals and significant (p>0.05) decrease in protein and lipid content of the liver was continually observed till the termination of the experiment. However, the enzymatic activities of AST and ALT in liver showed a significant (p<0.05) increase with increasing concentrations of glyphosate and duration of exposure. The histo-morphology of liver in fish exposed to glyphosate exhibited vacuolation of hepatocytes, pyknotic nuclei, degeneration of cytoplasm, and infiltration of leukocytes, necrosis and severe vasodilation in the treatments. The severity of biochemical and histological alterations was more pronounced in T2 after 28 days of exposure. The increase in activities of AST and ALT and the decrease in protein and lipid content of the liver following exposure of fish to the herbicide suggest enhanced protein catabolism, hepatocellular damage and increased utilization of energy stores to compensate for higher energy demands during stress. This indicates that the above said herbicide causes potential harm to the aquatic life.
Keywords
Cyprinus carpio L., Glyphosate, Histology, Lipids, Liver, Proteins, Transaminases
To cite this article
V. Bawa, J. K. Kondal, S. S. Hundal, Harpinder Kaur, Biochemical and Histological Effects of Glyphosate on the Liver of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.), American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue:Environmental Toxicology. Vol. 5, No. 3-1, 2017, pp. 71-80. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.s.2017050301.21
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Agrahari S, Pandey K C and Gopal K (2007) Biochemical alteration induced by monocrotophos in the blood plasma of fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). PesticBiochem Phys 88: 268-272.
[2]
Ayoola S O (2008) Histopathological effects of glyphosate on juvenile African catfish (Clariasgariepinus). American-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 4: 362-67.
[3]
Banaee M, Mirvaghefi A R, Sureda A, Rafei G R and Ahmadi K (2012) Effect of sublethal concentrations of diazinon on blood parameters and liver histopathology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Iran J Nat Res. 65: 297-313.
[4]
Begum G (2004) Carbofuran insecticide induced biochemical alterations in liver and muscle tissues of the fish Clariasbatrachus (Linn.) and recovery response. AquatToxicol 66: 83-92.
[5]
Bergmeyer H U (1974) Methods of enzymatic analysis. Academic Press New York 2: 735.
[6]
Cavas T and Konen S (2007) Detection of cytogenetic and DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes of goldfish (Carassiusauratus) exposed to glyphosate formulation using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. Mutagenesis 22: 263-68.
[7]
Couch J A (1975) Histopathological effects of pesticides and related chemicals on the liver of fish. In: W E Ribelin, G Magaki (eds) The pathology of fishes. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconson, USA.559-575.
[8]
Crestani M, Menezes C, Glusczak L, Miron D S, Lazzari R, Duarte M F, Morsch V M, Pippi A L and Vieira V P (2006) Effects of clomazone herbicide on hematological and some parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolism of silver catfish Rhamdiaquelen. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf65: 48-55.
[9]
Deivasigamani S (2015) Effect of herbicides on fish and histological evaluation of common carp (Cyprinuscarpio). Int J App Res 1: 437-440.
[10]
Devi Y and Mishra A (2013) Histopathological alterations in gill and liver anatomy of fresh water, air breathing fish Channa punctatus after pesticide Hilban (Chloropyrifos) treatment. Adv Bio res 4: 57-62.
[11]
Duarte W F R, Barragán L S R and Mocha P R E (2008) Acute toxicity and histopathological alterations of Roundup® herbicide on “cachamablanca” (Piaractus brachypomus). Pesq Vet Bras 28(11): 547-554.
[12]
Finney D J (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press London U K. 33.
[13]
Folch J, Lees M and Stanley G H S (1957) A simple method for isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue.J BiolChem226: 497-509.
[14]
Folmar L C, Sanders H O, Julin A M (1979) Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosphate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Arch Environ ContamToxicol8: 269-278.
[15]
Ganesh K, Janaiah C and Venkateshwarlu P (2006) Specific activity levels of protease, aminases and GDH in freshwater fish Clariasbatrachus on exposure to profenophos. J AquatBiol 21(2):196-199.
[16]
Ganeshwade R M, Rokade P B and Sonwane S R (2012) Impact of dimethoate on protein content in the freshwater fish Puntius ticto.The Bioscan 7: 153-155.
[17]
Hilmy A M, Shabana M B and Daabees A Y(1985) Effect of cadmium upon in vivo and in vitro activity of protein and five enzymes in blood serum and tissue homogenate on Mugilcephalus. Comp Biochem Physiol Comp Pharmacol Toxicol 81: 145-154.
[18]
Humason G L (1967) Animal tissue techniques W HFreeman, San Francisco.
[19]
Hundet A and Prabhat B K (2014) Histopathological alterations in hepatopancreas of a carp fish, C. carpio due to endosulfan toxicity. Cibtech J Zool 3 (1): 7-11.
[20]
Jiraungkoorskul W, Upatham E S, Kruatrachue M, Sahaphong S, Vichasri-Grams S and Pokethitiyook P (2003) Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate herbicide on Nile tilapia(Oreochromisniloticus). Environ Toxicol 18: 260-267
[21]
John P J (2007) Alteration of certain blood parameters of freshwater teleost Mystusvittatus after chronic exposure to metasystox and sevin. Fish PhysiolBiochem 33: 15-20.
[22]
Jones T, Hunt R and King N (1997) Veterinary Pathology.6th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 1392p.
[23]
Li Z H, Zlabete V, Velisek J, Grabic R, Machova J and Rendak T (2004): Physiological condition status and muscle based biomarkers in rainbow trout after long exposure to carbamazopine. J AppToxicol 30: 197-203.
[24]
Lowry O H, RosenbroughN J, Faar A L andRandall R J (1951)Protein measurements with folin phenolreagent. JBiolChem193:265-75.
[25]
Mohamed F A (2009) Histopathological studies on Tilapia zillii and Soleavulguris from lake Qarun, Egypt. World J Fish and Mari Sci1: 29-39.
[26]
Monir M S, Doulah M A U, Rahman M K, Akhter J N and Hossain M R (2015) Effect of cypermethrin on the histoarchitecture of gills and liver of a freshwater catfish, Pangasianodonhypophthalmus. Asian J Med Biol Res 1 (3): 641-647.
[27]
Moore A and Waring CP (2001) The effect of a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide on some aspects of reproduction in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. AquToxicol 52: 1-12.
[28]
Moustafa G G, Shaaban F E, Hadeed A H A and Elhady W M (2016) Immunotoxicological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on roundup and stomp herbicides in Nile catfish (Clariasgariepinus). Vet World 9(6): 638-647.
[29]
Naveed A, Janaiah C and Venkateshwarlu P (2010) The effects of lihocin toxicity on protein metabolism of the freshwater edible fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch.). J Toxicol EnvironHlthSci 3(1): 18-23.
[30]
Naveed A, Venkateshwarlu P and Janaiah C (2004): The action of sublethal concentration of endosulfan and kelthane on regulation of protein metabolism in the fish Clariasbatrachus. Nature EnvironPoll Tech 3: 539-544.
[31]
Neelima P, Kumar L C A, Rao N G and Rao J C S (2013) Studies on activity levels of aspartate amino transferases (ASAT) and alanine amino transferases (ALAT) in the tissues of Cyprinuscarpio (Linn.) exposed to cypermethrin (25% EC).Int J Pharma PharmaceutSci 5(3): 566-570.
[32]
Neskovic N K, Poleksi V, Elezovic I, Karan V and Budimir M (1996) Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate on carp (Cyprinuscarpio). Bull Environ ContamToxicol56: 295-302.
[33]
Pechiammal K and Kiruthika K (2016) Changes in biochemical parameters of freshwater fish, Cirrihinusmrigala exposed to Rogor (Insecticide).World J Pharma Pharmaceut Sci 5 (3): 723-728.
[34]
Philip G H, Reddy P M and Sridevi G (1995) Cypermethrin induced in vivo alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism of freshwater fish Labeorohita. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 31: 173-178.
[35]
Rajyashree M (1996) Carbamide induced alterations in some metabolic aspects of fish, Labeorohita. J Ecotoxicol Environ Monit 6: 41-44.
[36]
Reddy P M, Philip G H and Bashamohideen M (1991) Fenvalerate induced biochemical changes in the selected tissues of freshwater fish, Cyprinuscarpio. BiochemInt23: 1087-1096.
[37]
Reitman S and Frankel S (1957) A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamicoxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. American J ClinPathol 28:56-63.
[38]
Remia K M, Logaswamy S, Logankumar K and Rajmohan D (2008) Effect of an insecticide (Monocrotophos) on some biochemical constituents of the fish, Tilapia mossambica. Poll Res 27: 523-526.
[39]
Robertson J L, Russell R M and Savin N E (1980) POLO: a user’s guide to probit or logit analysis.
[40]
Sabae S Z, El-Sheekh M M, Khalil M A, Elshouny W A E and Badr H M (2014) Seasonal and regional variation of physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of surface water in El-Bahr ElPherony, Menoufia, Egypt. World J Fish Marine Sci 6: 328-335.
[41]
Samanta P, Mukherjee A K, PalS, KoleaD and GhoshaA R (2016) Toxic effects of glyphosate-based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on gill, liver, and kidney of Heteropneustesfossilis under laboratory and field conditions. J Microsc Ultrastruct 90: 1-9.
[42]
Sarwar S, Ahmad F and Khan J (2007) Assessment of the quality of Jehlum river water for irrigation and drinking at district Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir. Sarhad J Agri 23: 1041-1046.
[43]
Shinde V R, Veeresh M U and Kulkarni R S (2002) Ovarian changes in response to heavy metals exposure to the fish Notopterusnotopterus (Pallas). J Environ Biol 23: 137-141.
[44]
Sihtmae M, Blinova I, Kunnis-Beres M, Kanarbik L, Heinlaan M and Kahru A (2013) Ecotoxicological effects of different glyphosate formulations. App Soil Ecol 72: 215–224.
[45]
Singh R N, Yadava C L and Singh A K (2015) Dimethoate induced alterations in tissue protein levels of common carp, Cyprinuscarpio (Linn.).Int J Adv Res BiolSci 2 (3): 176-182.
[46]
Singh S and Bhati D P S (1994) Evaluation of liver protein due to stress under 2,4-D intoxication in Channa punctatus (Bloch). Bull Environ ContamToxicol3: 149-152.
[47]
Sreenivasa T (2002) Effect of atrazine on some aspects of lipid metabolism in freshwater fish. Biol Inter 23: 603-09.
[48]
Stentiford G D, LongshawM, Lyons B P, Jones G, Green M and Feist S W (2003) Histopathological biomarkers in estuarine fish species for the assessment of biological effects of contaminants.Marine Environmental Research 55: 137-159.
[49]
Stoyanova S, Yancheva V, Iliev I,Vasileva T,Bivolarski V,Velcheva I andGeorgieva E (2015) Glyphosate induces morphological and enzymatic changes in common carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.) liver.Bulgar J AgriSci21:409–412.
[50]
Stoyanova S, Yancheva V, Iliev I, Vasileva T, Bivolarski V, Velcheva V and Georgieva E (2016) Biochemical, histological and histochemical changes in Aristichthysnobilis Rich. liver exposed to thiamethoxam. Period Biol 118: 29-36.
[51]
Tomlin CDS (2006) The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium. 14thedn. British Crop ProtectionCouncil: Hampshire, UK. pp: 545-548.
[52]
Velcheva I, Petrova S, Mollov I, Gecheva G and Georgieva D (2012) Herbicides impact on community structure of the soil mesofauna. Bulgar J AgriSci 18: 742–748.
[53]
Velisek J, Stara A, koutnik D and Machova J (2014) Effects of prometryne on early life stages of common carp (CyprinuscarpioL.). Pest BiochemPhysiolDOI:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.11.011
[54]
Voltz M, Louchart X, Andrieux P and Lennartz B (2005) Process of water contamination bypesticides at catchment scale in mediteranean areas. Geophy Res 7:106 -134.
[55]
Webb S F (2001) A data-based perspective on the environmental risk assessment of human, pharmaceuticals III-indirect human exposure. In: Kummerer, K (Ed). Pharmaceuticals inthe environment. Springer Berlin: 221-230.
[56]
Yousafzai A M and Shakoori A R (2011) Hepatic responses of a freshwater fish against aquatic pollution. Pak J Zool 43: 209–221.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186