To attain sustainable development goals, reduction in child mortality is necessary. However, a major challenge exists in the procurement of healthcare services by individuals which is determined to a large extent by their level of income. Adopting random effect and fixed effect methodology and using survey data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2012) and General Household Survey (2012), this study examines the relationship between household income and child mortality. For the analysis, infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate was modeled against household income and controlled for access to anti-natal care, access to safe water and sanitation, neonatal mortality rate, maternal education and household size in Nigeria. Results obtained show that household income has significant effect on neonatal mortality rate in Nigeria but household income has insignificant effect on infant and under-five mortality rates in Nigeria. Results also show that household size has significant effect on infant mortality rate and neonatal mortality rate in Nigeria. The study equally found that access to anti-natal care has significant effect on under-five mortality rate in Nigeria.
Richardson Kojo Edeme,
Innocent A. Ifelunini,
Okereke Obinna S.,
Relationship between Household Income and Child Mortality in Nigeria, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue: Science, Society and Policy: Driving Towards Utopia or Dystopia?.
Vol. 2, No. 6-4,
2014, pp. 1-12.
S. L Adeyemi, U.A. Raheed and F.B. Olorunfemi, “Under-Five Mortality and the Environment of Health in the Third World: A Nigerian Example,” Journal of Human Ecology, vol. 24, no. 2, 2009.
B.A Ahonsi, “Developmental Implications of Early Mortality Factors in Nigeria,” Journal of Social Development in Africa, vol. 7, no. 1, 1992.
D. Antai, “Migration and Child Immunization in Nigeria: Individual and Community Level Contexts,” BMC Public Health, vol. 10, no. 1, 2010.
E.G Backland, P.D Sorlie and N.J Johnson, “The Shape of the Relationship between Income and Mortality in United States: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study,” Annual Epidemiol, vol. 6, no. 2, 2007.
J. C Caldwell, “Routes to Low Mortality in Poor Countries,” Population and Development Review, vol. 12, no. 2, 2006.
S.H Cochrane, “The Socioeconomic Determinants of Mortality: The Cross-national Evidence”, In: The Effects of Education on Health, World Bank Working Paper 405, 2000.
M.S Cousins, L. M Shickle and J.A Bander, “An Introduction to Predictive Modeling for Disease Management Risk Stratification,” Disease Management, vol. 5, no. 3, 2002.
M. Daly, G. Duncan, G.A Kaplan and J.W Lynch, “Macro-to-Micro Linkages in the Inequality-Mortality Relationship”. Milbank Memorial Fund 76, 1998.
A. V Diez-Roux, “Investigating Neighborhood and Area Effect on Health,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 3, 2001.
R. Ecob and S.G Davey, “Income and Health: What is the Nature of the Relationship?” Social Science Medicine, vol. 48, no. 3, 1999.
K. Fiscella and P. Franks, “Poverty or Income Inequality as Predictor of Mortality: Longitudinal Cohort Study,” BMJ, vol. 314, no. 6, 2007.
Federal Ministry of Health/WHO Nigeria, National study on Essential Obstetric Care Facilities in Nigeria. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria, 2006.
Federal Ministry of Health, National Integrated Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Strategy. Abuja: Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria, 2010.
B. Folasade, “Environmental Factors, Situation of Women and Child Mortality in South Western Nigeria,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 51, no. 1, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536 (00)00047-2.
H. Gravelle, “How Much of the Relation between Population Mortality and Unequal Distribution of Income is A Statistical Artefact?” BMJ, vol. 16, no. 3, 1998.
H.L Guyatt, R.W. Snow and D.B Evans, “Malaria Epidemiology and Economics: The Effect of Delayed Immune Acquisition on the Cost-effectiveness of Insecticide-treated Bednets,” The Royal Society, vol. 354, no. 4, 1999.
A. Hala, “The Effect of Water and Sanitation on Child Mortality in Egypt. Environmental Economics Unit, 2002, Department of Economics, Gothenburg University, 2002.
J.N Hobcraft, N.G MacDonald and W.S Rustein, “Socioeconomic Factors in Infant and Child Mortality: A Cross-national Comparism,” Population Statistics, vol. 38, no. 2, 1984.
H. Jacoby and L. Wang, “Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality in Rural China: A Competing Risks Approach”. Washington DC: World Bank, 2003.
M.K Jinadu, S.O Olusi, J.I Agun and A.K Fabiyi, “Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Nigeria: Studies on Prevalence, Mortality and Socio-Environmental Factors,” Journal of Diarrhoea Diseases Research, vol. 9, no. 4, 2011.
I. Kawachi and B Kennedy, “The Health of Nations: Why Inequality Is Harmful to Your Health”. New York, NY: New Press, 2012.
B. Klaauw and L Wang, “Child Mortality in Rural India”. World Bank Working Paper, Washington DC: World Bank, 2003.
J. S Koopman and J.W Lynch, “Individual Causal Models and Population Systems Models in Epidemiology,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 2, 2007.
J. W Lynch, G.A Kaplan and E.R Pamuk, “Income Inequality and Mortality In Metropolitan Areas of the United States,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, no. 7, 2005.
J. W Lynch and G.A Kaplan, “Understanding How Inequality in the Distribution of Income Affects Health,” Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 2, no. 2, 1997.
M. Marmot, D.S George, S. Stephan, S., Chandra, P., Fiona, N., Jenny, H., Ian, W., Eric B., and F. Amanda, “Health Inequalities Among British Civil Servants: The Whitehall II Study”, Lancet, vol. 337, 1991.
R. Merton and A. Kitt, “Contributions to the Theory of Reference Group Behavior in Studies in the Scope and Method of “The American Soldier” The Free Press, 1950.
G.C Mesike, Adeleke, I. A. and A. Ibiwoye, “Predictive Actuarial Modeling of Health Insurance Claims Costs,” International Journal of Mathematics and Computation, vol. 14, no. 1, 2011.
MICS, “Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Nigeria”, 2008.
J. N Mojekwu and L.A Ajijola, “Developing a Model for Estimating Infant Mortality rate of Nigeria,” Journal of Research in International Business and Management, vol. 1 no. 2, 2011.
W. Mosley and L.C Chen, “An Analytical Framework for the Study of Child Survival in Developing Countries,” Population and Development Review, vol. 10, no. 2, 1984.
C.J Mutunga, “Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality in Kenya”. UNU-WIDER Research paper No. 2007/83. Helsinki: United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research, Academic Research, vol. 2, no. 2, 2007.
NDHS, “Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey Report”, Abuja, 2003.
NDHS, “Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey Report”, Abuja, 2008.
P. O Ogunjuyigbe, “Under-Five Mortality in Nigeria: Perception and Attitude of the Yoruba towards the Existence of Abiku,” Demographic Research, vol. 11, no. 2, 2004.
R.K Ojikutu, “Malaria and Child Survival in Nigeria: Beyond the Stethoscope,” International Journal of Academic Research, vol. 2, no. 2, 2010.
S.B Omer, D.A Salmon, W.A Orenstein, P. De-Hart and N. Halsey, “Vaccine Refusal, Mandatory Immunization, and the Risks of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases,” Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 1, 2009.
B.C Ozumba and E.E Nwogu-Ikojo, “Avoidable Maternal in Enugu, Nigeria,” Public Health, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 354-360, 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2007.04.018.
K. M Rahman, M and P. Sarkar, ‘Determinants of Infant and Child Mortality in Bangladesh,” Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 6, no. 3, 2009.
G. Ridder and I. Tunali, “Stratified Partial Likelihood Estimation”. Journal of Econometrics, vol. 92, pp. 193-232, 1999, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076 (98)00090-6.
S.O Rutstein, “Guide to DHS Statistics”. Calverton, MD: Demographic and Health Surveys, ORC Macro, 2001.
T. Schultz, “Studying the Impact of Household Economic and Community Variables on Child Mortality”. Population and Development Review, vol. 10, no. 2, 1984, http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2807962.
G. Singh and M. Kogan, “Persistent Socioeconomic Disparities in Infant, Neonatal, And Post-Neonatal Mortality Rates in the United States, 1969-2001,” Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 4, 2007. Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/119/4/e928.
G. Singh and S. Yu, “Infant mortality in the United States: Trends, Differentials, Projection, 1950 –2010”. American Journal of Public Health., vol. 85, no. 7, 2005.
C.E Stein, Birmingham, M., Kurian, M., Duclos, P and P. Strebel, “The Global Burden of Measles in the Year 2000-A Model That Uses Country-Specific Indicators” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 187, no. 1, 2012.
UNICEF, “The State of the World’s Children”. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund, 2010.
UNICEF, “Assessment of the Impact of Rising Food and Commodity Prices on Childhood Malnutrition in Nigeria”, Commissioned Study, Abuja, January 2009.
A. Wagstaff and E. Doorslaer, “Income Inequality and Health: What Does the Literature Tell Us?,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 21, no. 3, 2010.
N.J Waitzman and K.R Smith, “Separate but Lethal: The Effects of Economic Segregation on Mortality in Metropolitan America,” Milbank Memorial Fund, vol. 76, no. 3, 1998.
L. Wang, “Environmental Determinants of Child Mortality: Empirical Results from the 2000 Ethiopia DHS”. Washington DC: World Bank, 2003.
WHO, World Health Organization Report, “Making a Difference”, Geneva, 2010.
R. Wilkinson, The Impact of Inequality, New York, NY: New Press, 2005.
M. Wolfson, Kaplan, G.A., Lynch, J.W., Ross, N and E. Backlund, “The Relation between Income Inequality and Mortality is not a Statistical Artefact”. BMJ, vol. 319: 953–957, 1998.
WHO, “Making Pregnancy Safer: The Critical Role of the Skilled Attendant”. A Joint Statement by WHO, ICM and FIGO WHO, Geneva, 2005.
D. You, G. Jones, G and T. Wardlaw, United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, Levels and Trends In Child Mortality: Estimated Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. New York: UNICEF, 2010.
Y. Zhao, S.A Ash, H. John and M. Benjamin, “Identifying Future High-Cost Cases through Predictive Modeling”. Disease Management and Health Outcomes, vol. 11, no. 6, 2003.