Production and Evaluation of Some Bioactive Compounds Extracted from Squilla (Oratosquilla massavensis) Shells
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2015, Pages: 38-44
Received: Sep. 9, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 10, 2015;
Published: Nov. 29, 2015
Views 4808 Downloads 128
Abouzeed A. S., Fish Processing and Technology Lab., Fisheries Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Omayma E. Shaltout, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Saba Basha, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Ibrahim S. M., Fish Processing and Technology Lab., Fisheries Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
Attia. R. S., Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, El-Shatby, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Aboul-yazeed A. M., Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Saba Basha, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
This work was performed to investigate the production and physicochemical properties of some bioactive compounds (chitin, chitosan and astaxanthin) extracted from squilla (Oratosquilla massavensis) shells. Chemical composition of squilla shells and chitin yield were determined. Results showed that pre-treated squilla shells contained 68.11% moisture, 12.88% true protein, 4.79% crude fat and 44.59% ash content (on dry weight). Chitin yield and its ash content ranged between 15.75–16.08% and 0.81–1.26%, respectively. The physicochemical properties of chitosan at different times and temperatures showed that chitosan composed 8.73–11.19% moisture, 0.66–0.83% true protein, 0.14 - 0.25% ash content. Viscosity of chitosan at higher temperatures (120°C and 130°C) for different times (30 min and 60 min) were significantly (P˂0.05) lower (80-111cps) than the lower temperatures (100°C and 110°C) for 60 min (138-130cps). At 120°C and 130°C, for 30 min, solubility was significantly lower (93.5-95.6%) than all other temperatures and times used. The degrees of deacetylation (DD) were significantly different at 130°C for 30 min and 60 min than all other temperatures and times used being higher than 70 % and ranged 73.11%-84.68%. Average molecular weight (MW) of chitosan at 120°C for 30 min was significantly different than all times and temperatures used except 120°C for 60 min and as high as 130°C for 60 min. Thus, it is obvious that MW ranged 180-189 Kilo Dalton was significantly different than lower Mw value (134.8 KD). A high value of water binding capacity (WBC) was found at 120°C for 60 min while fat binding capacity was found at 120°C for 30 min and 60 min compared with other treatments. Concerning the carotenoids, it was found that the astaxanthin in female gonads exhibited higher carotenoid concentration (14.01µg\g) than the shells (10.10µg\g on wet weight). In conclusion, squilla shells are highly prized as an inexpensive market value which could be converted into a valuable expensive chitosan and female gonads are considered a good source for carotenoids, particularly astaxanthin.
Abouzeed A. S.,
Omayma E. Shaltout,
Ibrahim S. M.,
Attia. R. S.,
Aboul-yazeed A. M.,
Production and Evaluation of Some Bioactive Compounds Extracted from Squilla (Oratosquilla massavensis) Shells, American Journal of Life Sciences. Special Issue: New Horizons in Basic and Applied Zoological Research.
Vol. 3, No. 6-1,
2015, pp. 38-44.
GAFRD," Statistical Records. "General Authority for fisheries Resources Development (GAFRD) – Ministry of Agriculture. (2013).
K. Prabu and E. Natarajan. "Isolation and FTIR spectroscopy characterization of chitin from local sources." Advances in Applied Science Research. (2012) 3: 1870-1875.
S. Kalyan, P. Sharma, V. Gery, N. Kunar and J. Varshney, "Recent advancement in Chitosan based formulations and its pharmaceutical application." Der pharmacia sinica. (2010) 1: 195-210.
P. Sharma, S. Jain, G. Yadov and A. Sharma," Natural preservatives: Current insights and applications". Der Pharmacia Sinica. ( 2010) 1: 95-102
A. Sanjiv, L. Sohan, S. Chetan and R, A Kamal," Synthesis, thermal and antimicrobial studies of chitosan/starch/poly (vinyl alcohol) ternary blend films". Der Chemica Sinica. (2011) 2: 75-.86.
N. M. Sachindra, N. Bhaskar and N. S Mahendrakar," Recovery of carotenoids from shrimp waste in organic solvents". Waste Management. (2006) 26: 1092–1098.
R. Sowmya and N. M. Sachindra, "Evaluation of antioxidant activity of carotenoid extract from shrimp processing byproducts by in vitro assays and in membrane model system". Food Chemistry. (2012) 134: 308–314.
K. G. R. Nair, P. Madhavan and K. Gopakumar, " Info fish Marketing Digest, (1986) 4: 86, 20.
G. A. F. Roberts, "In Advances in Chitin Science"; Domard, A.; Roberts, G. A. F.; Va˚rum, K. M., Eds.; Jacques Andre´: Lyon, France. (1997) 2: 22–30.
H. K. No, and S. P. Meyers," Preparation and characterization of chitin and chitosan." A review. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. (1995) 4:27-52
AOAC, "Official Methods of Analysis (17th). Association Of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC. (2005)
R. F. Boyer, Modern Experimental Biochemistry, 2nd ed.; Benjamin/ Cummings Series in the Life Sciences and Chemistry: California. (1993) 199: 51–55.
C. A. Black, "Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I Physical and mineralogical properties". American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin (1965)
A. Baxter, M. Dillon, K. D. Anthony Taylor and G. A. F. Roberts, "Improved method for (IR) determination of the degree of N-acetylation of chitosan". International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. (1992) 14: 166-169.
H. K. No, J. W. Nah and S. P. Meyers," Effect of time / temperature treatment parameters on depolymerilyzation of chitosan." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2003). 87:1890-1894.
M. S. Rao, K. A. Nyein, T. S. Trung and W. F. Stevens, "Optimum parameters for production of chitin and chitosan from squilla (S. empusa)". Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2007) 103: 3694–3700.
S-O Fernandez-Kim," Physicochemical and functional properties of crawfish chitosan as affected by different processing protocols." Agricultural and Mechanical College, Louisiana State University (2004).
J. C. Wang and J. E. Kinsella, " Functional properties of novel proteins: Alfalfa leaf protein". Journal of Food Science. (1976) 41: 286–292.
SAS. SAS User’s Guide, Version 8. Cary NC: SAS Institute (2001).
K. G. R Nair, P. Madhavan and K. Gopakumar, In: Textbook of Fish Processing Technology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. (2002) 467-483.
K. Kurita, "Chitin and chitosan functional biopolymers from marine crustaceans", Marine Biotechnology. (2006) 8:203–226.
K. Gopakumar,"Textbook of fish processing technology." Indian council of agricultural research New Delhi. (2002) 467-483.
M. Rhazi, J. Desbrie`res, A. Tolaimate, A. Alagui and P. Vottero, "Investigation of different natural sources of chitin: influence of the source and deacetylation process on the physicochemical characteristics of chitosan". Polym. Int. (2000) 49: 337-344.
N. Thirunavukkarasu, K. Dhinamala and R. I. Moses, "Production of chitin from two marine stomatopods Oratosquilla spp. (Crustacea)". J. Chem. Pharm. Res. (2011) 3:353-359.
T. A. Khan, K. K Peh and H.S. Ch’ng,".Reporting degree of deacetylation values of chitosan: the influence of analytical methods." J Pharm Pharmaceutics Sci. (2002) 5:205–12.
Q. Li, E. T. Dunn, E. W. Grandmaison, and M. F. A. Goosen," Applications and properties of chitosan." Journal of Bioactive Compatible Polymers. (1992) 7: 370–397.
Alimuniar and Zainuddin, "An economical technique for producing chitosan." In Advances in Chitin and Chitosan, C. J. Brine, P.A. Sanford, and J.P. Zikakis (Ed.), (1992) p.627. Elsevier Applied Science, Essex, UK.
Y. J. Jeon, J. Y. V. A. Kamil and F. Shahidi, "Chitosan as an edible invisible film for quality preservation of herring and Atlantic cod." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, (2002) 50: 5167–5178.
H. K. No, S.P. Meyers, W. Prinyawiwatkul and Z. Xu,. Application of chitosan for improvement of quality and shelf life of foods." A review J. Food Sci. (2007)72: 87-100.
R. Prashanth and R. Tharanathan,"Chitin/chitosan: modifications and their unlimited application potential- an overview". Trends Food Sci Tech. (2007) 18: 117-31.
G. Lamarque, M. Cretenet, C. Viton and A. Domard, "New route of deacetylation ofα - and β-chitins by means of freeze–pump out–thaw cycles." Biomacromolecules. (2005) 6: 1380–1388.
K. Kurita," Controlled functionalization of polysaccharide chitin." Prog. Poly. Sci. (2001) 26: 1921-1971.
A. Kucukgulmez, M. Celik, Y. Yanar, D. Sen, H. Polat and A. Eslem Kadak, "Physicochemical characterization of chitosan extracted from Metapenaeus stebbingi shells." Food Chemistry. (2011) 126:1144–1148.
M. T. Yen, J.-H. Yang and J. L. Mau, "Physicochemical characterization of chitin and chitosan from crab shells". Carbohydrate Polymers. (2009) 75: 15–21.
S. V. Nemtsev, A. I . Gamzazade, S. V. Rogozhin, V. M. Bykova and V. P. Bykov, "Deacetylation of chitin under homogeneous conditions." Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. (2002) 38: 521–526.
N. Liu, X.-G. Chen, H. J Park, C.-G Liu, X. H. Meng and L. J. Yu, "Effect of Mw and concentration of chitosan on antibacterial activity of Escherichia coli." Carbohydrate Polymers. (2006) 64: 60-65.
Y. Omura, M. Shigemoto, T. Akiyama, H. Saimoto, Y. Shigemasa, I Nakamura and T. Tsuchido," Reexamination of antimicrobial activity of chitosan having different degrees of acetylation and molecular weights." Advances in Chitin Sci. (2002) 6: 273-274.
L. O. Y. Zheng and J. F. Zhu, "Study on antimicrobial activity of chitosan with different molecular weights". Carbohydrate Polymer. (2003) 54: 527-530.
H. K. No, Y. I. Cho, H. R. Kim and S. P. Meyers." Effective deacetylation of chitin under conditions of 15 psi/121ºC". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (2000) 48: 2625-2627.
F. Shahidi and J. Synowiecki," Isolation and characterization of nutrients and value-added products from snow crab (Chinoecetes opilio) and shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing discards". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (1991) 39:1527–1532.
I. Higuera-Ciapara, L. Felix-Valenzuela, F. M. Goycoolea and W. Argu¨elles-Monal, "Microencapsulation of astaxanthin in a chitosan matrix." Carbohydrate Polymers. (2004) 56: 41–45.
S. Sindhua and P. M. Sherief," Extraction, characterization, antioxidant and anti-Inflammatory properties of carotenoids from the shell waste of Arabian Red Shrimp Aristeus alcocki, Ramadan 1938". The Open Conference Proceedings Journal. (2011) 2: 95-103.