Effects of Container Types and Soil Organic Matter Proportions on the Culture of a Tropical Earthworm (Libyodrilus violaceus Beddard, 1891)
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 4, August 2013, Pages: 150-154
Published: Jul. 20, 2013
Views 2885 Downloads 82
E. O. Dada, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
K. L. Njoku, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
A. A. Osuntoki, Department of Biochemistry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
M. O. Akinola, Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; Department of Environmental Science, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
Earthworms are becoming increasingly useful in solving human and environmental problems. In addition to biomonitoring and soil fertility renewing roles, they are now used as livestock feed, therapeutic agents and soil contaminants remover. It is therefore imperative to encourage more earthworm culture research. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which container types and soil amendments affect the breeding of Libyodrilus violaceus Beddard, 1891 in the laboratory. The earthworm species was cultured in loamy sandy soil amended with different proportions of cow dung inside earthenware, plastic and wooden pots for a period of twelve weeks in the laboratory. The data generated were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) multivariate tests. These tests indicated that both pot and soil types had significant influence on L. violaceus culture. The effects of pot type was more significant (Lambda = 0.114, p < 0.001) compared to soil type (Lambda = 0.302, p < 0.001). Follow-up univariate analysis of variance indicated that pot type had more significant influence on final earthworm number (F = 68.74, p < 0.001) than the final weight (F = 7.14, p < 0.005). While soil type had a strong significant influence on the final number of earthworms (F = 12.24, p < 0.001), its influence on the final weight was not significant (F = 2.20, p > 0.05). Wooden pot had the highest mean final earthworm number (76.50 ± 20.27), followed by earthenware pot (61.75 ± 16.43). Loamy soil amended with 25% cow dung had the highest mean final earthworm number in the three types of pot, 82.67 ± 11.93, 32.00 ± 7.00, and 94.00 ± 11.53 for earthenware, plastic and wooden pots respectively. These findings imply that if L. violaceus must be cultured ex situ, wooden pot should be preferred above earthenware and plastic, while loamy soil amended with 25% cow dung should be preferred over other soil amendments.
E. O. Dada,
K. L. Njoku,
A. A. Osuntoki,
M. O. Akinola,
Effects of Container Types and Soil Organic Matter Proportions on the Culture of a Tropical Earthworm (Libyodrilus violaceus Beddard, 1891), American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2013, pp. 150-154.
Owa, S. O., Dedeke, G. A., Moreyibi, O.H., Morafa, S. O. A., Senjobi, B. A. and Aladesida, A. A. 2010. Partitioning of Chemical effects of earthworms on growth performance of the vegetable Amaranthus. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4 (8): 3755-3761.
Sinha, R.K., Agarwal, S., Chauhan, K., Chandran, V., and Soni, B.K. 2010. Vermiculture technology: Reviving the dreams of Sir Charles Darwin for scientific use of earthworms in sustainable development programs.Technology and Investment, 1 : 155-172.
Butt, K.R. 1999. Inculcation of earthworms into reclaimed soils: The U.K. experience. Journal of Land Degradation and Development, 10: 565-575.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1984. Earthworm acute toxicity tests. OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, 207.
Spurgeon, D. J. and Hopkin, S. P. 2000. The development of genetically inherited resistance to zinc in laboratory – selected generations of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Environmental Pollution, 109: 193-201.
Shin, K., Kim, J., and Kim, K. 2007. Earthworm toxicity test for the monitoring arsenic and heavy metal – containing mine tailings. Environmental Engineering Science, 24 (9) : 1257-1265.
Dada, E. O., Njoku, K. L., Osuntoki, A. A. and Akinola, M.O. 2013. Evaluation of the responses of a wetland, tropical earthworm to heavy metal contaminated soil. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 1 (2): 47-52.
Dynes, R. A. 2003. Earthworm technology for the rural industries research and development corporation. Australian Government Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, no 03/085.
Hemalatha, B. 2012. Recycling of industrial sludge along with municipal solid waste – vermicomposting method. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, III (SII): 71-74.
Balamurugan, M., Parthasarathi, K., Ranganthan, L.S. and Cooper, E. 2008. Hypothetical mode of action of earthworm extract with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Journal of Zhejiang University Science 3, 9 (2): 141-147.
Pan, R., Zhang, Z. and He, R. 2010. Earthworm protease. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2010(2010), ID 294258, 13 pp.
Cooper, E.L., Balamurugan, M., Huang, C., Tsao, C.R., Heredia, J., Tommaseo-Ponzetta, M. and Paoletti, M.G. 2012. Earthworm dilong: Ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 0212: 164152.
Sogbesan, A.O., Ugwumba, A.A.A., Madu, C.T., Eze, S.S., and Isa, J. 2007. Culture and utilization of earthworm as animal protein supplement in the diet of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science. 2: 375-386.
Sogbesan, O. A. and Ugwumba, A.A.A. 2006. Effect of different substrates on growth and productivity of Nigeria Semi-Arid Zone earthworm (Hyperiodrilus euryaulos, Clausen 1842) (Oligochaeta: Eudrilinae). World Journal of Zoology, 1(2): 103-112.
Suthar, S. 2007. Influence of different food sources on growth and reproduction performance of compositing epigeics: Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavates, and Perionye sansibaricus. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 5(2): 79-92.
Dedeke, G.A., Aladesida, A.A., and Akinola, O. A. 2009. Growth performance of Alma millsoni fed with brewers dried grain (BDG) and coconut husk. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology, 3 (5): 067-070.
Ibrahim, B.U., Auta, J. and Adebote, D.A. 2010. Effects of soil types and enhanced nutrient levels on the productivity of earthworm (Eudrilus eugeniae, Kinberg). Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3 (1): 59-62.
Cholewa, J., Feeney, G.P., O’Reilly, M., Sturzenbaum, S.R., Morgan, A.J. and Plytycz, B. 2006. Auto fluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica, 44 (1): 65-71.
Munnoli, P. M. and Bhosle, S. 2009. Effect of soil and cowdung proportion on vermin-compositing by deep burrower and surface feeder species. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 68: 57-60.
Kamaldeen, O. S., Uzoma, A., Olyemi, F. F. and Awagu, E. F. 2013. Effects of NSPRI tin-in-tin compared with pot-in-pot evaporative cooler on the stored fruits. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2 (1): 63-69.
Gajalakshmi, S. and Abbasi, S.A. 2004. Earthworms and Vermicomposting. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 3: 486-494.