Effect of Nutrient and Pre-Infested Brinjal, Solanum Melongena by Whitefly and Aphid on Population Dynamics of Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages: 1-10
Received: Feb. 2, 2013;
Published: Feb. 20, 2013
Views 3381 Downloads 246
Mohd Rasdi Zaini, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Che Salmah Md Rawi, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Abu Hassan, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
This study investigated the consequence of nutrient concentration levels and pre-infestation of brinjal (Solanum melongena) plant (by whitefly and aphids) on population of whitefly (Aleyrodidae; Hemiptera) over two cropping periods. Both factors, nutrient levels and pre-infestation by pests could also change plant-pest relationship especially with herbi-vorous insect pests. Variation in nutrient levels applied to the plants could influence different physiological performance of the plants which subsequently affected whitefly population. Populations of whitefly were higher following increasing levels of nutrients in non-pre-infested (control) plants. Lower whitefly populations were observed on whitefly pre-infested brinjal plants compared to aphid pre-infested and control plants. Pre-infested plants were suspected to induce productions of sec-ondary metabolites as a chemical defense system thus lowering the number of whiteflies on them. Considering other man-agement technique in controlling whiteflies on brinjal such as optimum nutrient supplement as plant growth progress and good pest care during seedling stage was proposed.
Mohd Rasdi Zaini,
Che Salmah Md Rawi,
Effect of Nutrient and Pre-Infested Brinjal, Solanum Melongena by Whitefly and Aphid on Population Dynamics of Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2013, pp. 1-10.
Gennadius P (1889) Disease of tobacco plantations in the Trikonia. The Aleyrodid of tobacco, Ellenike Georgia 5. 1-3.
McDonough MJ, Daniel G and Mark EA (2003) Whiteflies in Commercial Greenhouse Poinsettia Production. Reagents of the University of Minnesota. 1-12.
Mohd Rasdi Z (2005) Biology, distribution and effect of selected insecticides against whiteflies (Trialeurodes vapo-rariorum Westwood and Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) on brinjal (Solanum melongena). Thesis; Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Dung NH and Thanh Dung TT (2003) Economic and health consequences of pesticide use in paddy production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Research Report: 1-39.
Swain T (1977) Secondary compounds as protective agents. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 28: 479-501.
William FF, Evan S, Charles M, Robert FD, Andrea FH, Athur WH and James JE (2002) Nitrogen in insects: Impli-cations for trophic complexity and species diversification. The American Naturalist, Vol.160 (6) Dec 2002.
Teja T and Bradford AH (2000) Multitrophic level interactions: an introduction. Cambridge University Press.
Zurina M, Mohamad Roff MN and Idris AB (2010) Effect of nitrogen rates on the whitefly Bemisia tabaci) population infesting chilli (Capsicum annum L.). Sains Malaysiana, 39(6): 913-920.
Yolanda HC and Stepen CW (2005) Crop domestication disrupts a native tritrophic interaction associated with the sunflower, Helianthus annuus (Asterales: Asteraceae). Eco-logical Entomology (2005) 30: 673–683.
Prabhu M, Natarajan S, Veeraragavathatham D and Pugalendhi L (2009) The biochemical basis of shoot and fruit borer resistance in interspecific progenies of brinjal (Solanum melongena). EurAsian Journal of BioSciences, 3: 50-57.
Mohd Rasdi Z and CheSalmah MR (2011) Multitrophic system: Effect of different concentration of nutrient and pre-infested brinjal (Solanum melongena) on whitefly (Be-misia tabaci) population. 2011 3rd International Symposium & Exhibition in Sustainable Energy & Environment, 1-3 June 2011, Melaka, Malaysia. 236-242.
Inbar M, Doostdar H, Leibee GL and Mayer RT (1999) The role of plant rapidly induced responses in asymmetric in-terspecific interaction among herbivores. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 8, 1999.
Mohd Rasdi Z, Fauziah I, CheSalmah MR, Fairuz K, Saiful Akbar MS, Md Jamaludin B and Kamaruzaman J (2009). Population ecology of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on brinjal. Journal of Agricultural Science (CCSE). Vol. 1 (1): 27–32.
Sandra DS, Ramon CL (1987) SAS System for Elementary Statistical Analysis. SAS Institute Inc. 418 pp.
Schoonhoven LM, van Loon JJ A and Dicke M (2005) In-sect-plant biology. Oxford: University Press. pp. 421.
Gershenzon J and Croteau R (1991) Terpenoids. In: Rosen-thal GA and Berenbaum MR, Herbivores: Their Interaction With Secondary Plant Metabolites. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL: 165–219.
Lenteren JC, Van LP and Noldus JJ (1990) Whitefly-plant relationships: Behavioural and ecological aspects. In: Whi-teflies: Their bionomics, pest status and management, D. Gerling (ed.). Intercept, Hants, United Kingdom, pp. 47-90.
Bogran CE and Heinz KM (2000) Whiteflies: House and landscape pests. Texas Cooperative Extension; B-6127.
Spencer TB (2008) Insect herbivore nutrient regulation. Annual Rev. Entomol.2009. 54:165-187.
Gibson RW (1971) The resistance of three Solanu species to Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Aulacorthum solani (Aphididae: Homoptera). Ann. Appl. Biol. 68. pp. 245-251.
Walling LL (2000) The myriad plant responses to herbivores. Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, J Plant Growth Regul (2000) 19:195-216.
Hamady D, Tomomitsu S, Ahmad Abu, Al Thbiani A, Ronald EM, Suhaila AH, Fumio M and Sazaly A (2011) Peroxidase activity after viral infection and whitefly infestation in juvenile and mature leaves of solanum lycopersicum. Journal Phytopathol©2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Cevahir G, Yentu¨ r S, Yazgan M, U¨ nal M and Yilmazer N (2004) Peroxidase activity in relation to anthocyanin and chlorophyll content in juvenile and adult leaves of ‘‘mini-star’’ Gazania splendens. Pak J Bot 36:603–609.
Fagoonee I and Toory V (1983) Preliminary investigation of host selection mechanisms by the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii. Insect Sc. Application 4: pp. 337-341.
Bernays EA, Bright KL, Gonzales N and Angel J (1994) Dietary mixing in a generalist herbivore: tests of two hypo-theses. Ecology 75:1997-2006.
Borowicz VA, Albrecht U and Mayer R.T (2003) Effects of nutrient supply on citrus resistance to root herbivory by Di-aprepes abbreviatus L.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Envi-ronmental entomology 32, 1242-1250.
Horowitz AR, Podoler H and Gerling D (1984) Life table analysis of the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in cotton fields in Israel. Acta Ecological/Ecologia Applicata 5. pp. 221-233.
Dyer LA (2007) Tropical tritrophic interactions: Nasty hosts and ubiquitous cascades. Tropical forest community ecology: 275-293.
Chen Luo and Tong-Xian Liu (2011) Fitness of Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Insect science, 18: 84-91.
Bi JL, Ballmer GR., Hendrix DL, Henneberry TJ and Toscano NC (2001) Effect of cotton nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations and honeydew production. Entomologia experimentalist et applicata, 99 (1), 25-36.
Berlinger MJ (1986) Host plant resistance to Bemisia tabaci. Agric. Ecosystems Environ. 17. pp. 69-82.
Reddy AS and Venugopal Rao N (1989) Cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.) A review. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 17: 171- 179.
Jauset AM (1997) Cytology and physiology of silverleaf whitefly-induced squash silverleaf. Exp. Appl. 46: 227-242.
Bentz JA, Reeves J, Barbosa P and Francis B (1995) Nitrogen fertilizer effect on selection, acceptance and suitability of Euphorbia pulcherrima (Euphorbiaceae) as host plant to Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Environmental Entomology 24: 40-45.
Rote NB and Purr SN (1992) Effects of fertilizer application on incidence of whitefly on diffe different cotton cultivars. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 17: 45-48.
Mattson, W. J. Jr., (1980) Herbivory in relation to plant ni-trogen content. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic 11: 119-161.
Liu, T. X. & Stansly, P. A. (1995) Oviposition by Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato: effects of leaf factors and insecticide residues. J. Econ. Entomol. 88: 992-997.
Mayer RT, McCollum TG, McDonald RE, Polstan JE and Doostdar H (1996) Bemisia feeding induces pathogene-sis-related proteins in tomato. Taxonomy, biology, damage, control and management. Androver: Intercept Ltd. 179-188.
Ibrahim MA, Stewart-Jones A, Pulkkinen J, Poppy GM and Holopainen JK (2007) The influence of different nutrient levels on insect-induce plant volatiles in Bt and conventional oilseed rape plants. Plant Biology. 10: 97-107.
Takabayashi J, Dicke M and Posthumus MA (1991) Variation in composition of predator-attracting allelochemicals emitted by herbivore-infested plants: relative influenced of plants and herbivore. Chemoecology 2: 1-6.
Luong Minh C, Hoang Due C, Phan Thi B, Luong Thi P, Jiaan C and Heong KL (2003) Impacts of nutrient management on insect pests and diseases of rice. Journal Omonrice 11:93-102.
Miller TEX (2008) Bottom-up, top-down, and within-trophic level pressures on a cactus-feeding insect. Journal Ecological Entomology, 33: 261-268.
Dicke M and Joop van Loon JA (2000) Multitrophic effects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in an evolutionary context. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 97: 237-249.
Sanderson JP (1996) Management of aphids and whiteflies. Proceedings for the Twelfth Conference on Insect and Disease Management on Ornamentals, San Francisco, CA. Society of American Florist, Alexandria, VA. pp. 109-124.
Mittler TE (1967) Effect of amino acid and sugar concentra-tion on the food uptake of the aphid Myzus persicae. Ent. exp. & appl. 10 (1967): 39-51.