Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages: 23-32
Received: Jan. 28, 2013;
Published: Feb. 20, 2013
Views 3207 Downloads 232
Eyal Byran, Faculty of Architecture and Town planning, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Issachar Gilad, Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology,Haifa, Israel
Rivka Oxman, Faculty of Architecture and Town planning, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
The design of off-road vehicles is complicated. Particularly when the driving, is accompanied with another task, simultaneously (e.g. plowing). Such a complex environment may lead to human error and end up with an accident. In Aus-tralia, 20-25 percent of vehicle accidents’ casualties are from off-road accidents. The literature suggests three combined and important aspects, in vehicle design: vision control, anthropometrical fitting and biomechanical considerations. No study is found which supports an off-road vehicle design from all three aspects together. In addition, the extensive use of computer aided design (CAD) in the vehicles’ design stages, produce only qualitative results. This study presents a pioneering expe-rimental ergonomic research, of an off-road cabin design. The research inquires the three aspects,combined, generating quantitative results. These results produce a better fitted design to the operator and his operational needs, which help the engineer to design a cabinthat may lead to less strenuous sitting postures and fatigue.
Ergonomic Design: Experimental Studies of Multi-Task Vehicle, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2013, pp. 23-32.
Attaianese, E. and Duca, G., (2011). Human factors and ergonomic principles in building design for life and work activities: an applied methodology. LEAS, Faculty of Ar-chitecture, University of Naples Federico II. Firenze University Press. pp. 118-127.
Barron, P., J., Owende, P., M., O., McDonnell, K., P., Ward, S., M., (2005). A Method for Assessment of Degradation of Task Visibility from Operator Cabins of Field Ma-chines.International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35(7). pp. 665 – 673.
Bottoms, D.J., barber, T.S., (1978). A Swiveling Seat to Improve Tractor Driver's Posture. Applied Ergonomics, 9(2). pp. 77 – 84.
Brown, S. (1985). Ergonomics in design education: a us-er-centered approach. Design Studies, 6 (2), pp 73–82.
Chaffin, D.B., (2007). Human Motion Simulation for Vehicle and Workplace Design. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 17 (5). pp. 475–484.
Charytonowicz, J., (2000). Architecture and Ergonomics. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings, Proceedings 6 - General Sessions , pp. 103-106(4).
Corlett, E., N., (1983). Analysis and evaluation of working posture, in T. O. Kvålseth (ed). Ergonomics of Workstation Design. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 1-18.
Drakopoulos, D., Mann, D., D., (2006). An Ergonomic Analysis of the Controls Present in a Tractor Workstation. Presented at the Canadian Society for Bioengineering, 2006 Annual Conference, Edmonton Alberta, July 16-19.
EEC, council Directive 77/649 (1977). Field of vision of motor vehicle drivers. Official Journal of Europian Communities, L267. Brussels. pp.1 -22.
European ergonomic and safety guidelines for forest machines, (2006). Gellerstedt S., Eriksson, G., Frisk. S., Hultåker, O., Synwoldt, U., Tobisch, R., Weise, G., (Eds.). A handbook produced by ErgoWood, a project co-financed by the European Commission.
Franklin, R., Mitchell, R., Driscoll, T., Fragar, L., 1999. Farm-Related Fatalities in Australia, 1989-1992. Australian Centre for Agricultural Health and Safety and Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, pp. 213-225.
Gilad, I., Byran, E., (2007). Ergonomic evaluation of the ambulance interior to reduce paramedic discomfort and posture stress, Human Factors, 49(6).
Guangyan, L., and Haslegrave, C., M., (1999). Seated work for manual, visual and combined tasks. Ergonomics, 42 (8). pp. 1060-1086.
Hasdoǧan, G.,(1996). The role of user models in product design for assessment of user needs. Design Studies, 17 (1), pp 19-33.
Haslegrave, C., M., (1993). Visual aspects in Vehicle design. Automotive Ergonomics, Edited by Peacock, B. and Kar-wowski, W.Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp. 43-79.
Hsiao, H., Whitestone, J., Bradtmiller, B., Whisler, R., Zwiener, J., Lafferty, C., Kau, T., Y., and Gross, M., (2005). Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames. Ergonomics, 48(4). pp. 323 – 353.
Hutter, G.,M., 2000. Earthmoving equipment – an operator’s field of view (S. A. E standard J1091). Safety and Forensic Engineering Journal 2.
Li, G., and Haslegrave, C., M., (1999). Seated work postures for manual, visual and combined tasks. Ergonomics, 42(8). Taylor and Francis. pp. 1060-1086.
Magnusson, M., Pope, M., Rostedt, M., Hansson, T., (1993). Effect of Backrest Inclination on the Transmission of Vertical Vibrations through the Lumbar Spine. Clinical Biomechanics, 8(1), pp. 5-12.
MIL-STD-1472F, (1999). Department of Defense Design Criteria Standard, Human Engineering. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Moody, S. (1981). Ergonomic principles in the design of hand tools: T M Fraser ILO, Geneva, Switzerland (1980).Design Studies, 2 (4). pp. 93.
NASA-STD-3000, (1995). Man-System integration Stan-dards. NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administra-tion.
Parenteau, C., S., Shen, W., Shah, M., (2000). The Effec-tiveness of Adjustable Pedals Usage. Reprinted from: Human Factors in 2000: Driving, Lighting, Seating Comfort, and Harmony in Vehicle Systems. SAE World Congress, Detroit Michigan. pp. 1-9.
Pheasant, S., T., and Harris, C., M., (1982). Human strength in the operation of tractor pedals. Ergonomics in Agriculture and Forestry, 25(1). Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp. 53-64
Rötting, M., Rösler, D., Lohse, K., Göbel, M., (2000). Activity and Eye Movement Analysis as Basis of Vehicle Cabin Design. Proceedings of the XIVth Triennial Congress of the IEA and 44th Annual Meeting of the HFES, San Diego, California, 3, pp. 341 – 344.
SAE, 1973a, SAE Recommended Practice J182a, Motor Vehicle Fiducial marks, New York: Society of Automotive Engineers.
SAE, 1973b, Field of view from automotive vehicles, SAE SP-381, New York: Socity of Automotive Engineers.
SAE, 1994, Surface Vehicle Standard – Control Locations for Oﬀ-Road Work Machines, SAE J898 (Warrendale, PA: So-ciety of Automotive Engineers, Inc).
Schlegel, R., E., (1993). Driver mental workload. Automotive Ergonomics, Edited by Peacock, B. and Karwowski, W.Taylor and Francis Ltd. Pp. 359-383.
Sporrong, H., Palmerud, G., Kadefors, R., Herberts, P., (1998). The effect of light manual precision work on shoulder muscles-an EMG analysis. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 8. Pp. 177-184.