An Assessment of the Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Environmental Changes on Rural Livelihood: A Study Across Addado, Buhodle and Northern Galkaayo of Central and Northern Somalia
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2014, Pages: 279-291
Received: Aug. 17, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 28, 2014;
Published: Sep. 10, 2014
Views 3536 Downloads 282
Badal Ahmed Hassan, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Edinam K. Glover, Faculty of Law, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Olavi Luukkanen, Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Ramni Jamnadass, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, Nairobi, Kenya
Ben Chikamai, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
The international community has long recognized desertification as a significant global social, economic and environmental problem of concern with detrimental effects on the livelihoods of people in many countries world-wide. To explore this critique, this study examined local people’s views on the causes, effect and socio-economic impact of desertification and degradation to the community. The study involved a cross-sectional survey conducted with four community categories, namely nomadic pastoralist, agro-pastoralists, villagers and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), from Addado, Buhodle and northern Galkaayo of central and northern part of Somalia; through questionnaire-based interviews. Descriptive statistics attribute environmental changes to negative implications of human activities on the environment: the menace of which led to a decline in forage, current loss of biodiversity and the related changes in the environment, permanent migration, increased poverty and health problems. The startling results of this study conclusively demonstrate that the challenges involve proper interventions for tree planting against desertification as well as for community empowerment through public education and formation of community based environmental associations to coordinate the overall environmental management activities and to raise public awareness.
Badal Ahmed Hassan,
Edinam K. Glover,
An Assessment of the Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Environmental Changes on Rural Livelihood: A Study Across Addado, Buhodle and Northern Galkaayo of Central and Northern Somalia, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2014, pp. 279-291.
Benton, H. H. 1973-1974. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Ready Reference and Index volume VII, Publisher University of Chicago.
Bongers F. and Tennigkeit T. (eds), 2010. Degraded Forests in Eastern Africa: Management and Restoration. Earthscan, UK.
DFID, 2005. Somalia Country Study. European Community’s Poverty Reduction Effectiveness Programme (EC-PREP). University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Dixon, R.K., Winjum, J.K., Andrasko, K.J., Lee, J.J. and Schroeder, P.E., 1994. Integrated land-use systems: assessment of promising Agroforestry and alternative land-use practices to enhance carbon conservation and sequestration. Climate Change 27:71-92.
Faillace, C. And Faillace, E. R. 1987. Water quality data book of Somalia. General report. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zuzammenarbeit (GTZ) GMBH. Project No. 80.2193.3-09.112.
FAO, 1993. Key aspects of strategies for the sustainable development of Drylands. Rome.
FAO, 2010. Manual on Small Earth Dams: A Guide to Siting, Design and Construction. FAO, Rome. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 64.
Glover, E. K. 2005. Tropical dryland rehabilitation: Case study on participatory forest management in Gedaref, Sudan. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Helsinki Tropical Forestry Report No. 27. 183 p.
Glover, E.K. 2010. Approaches to Halt and Reverse Land Degradation in Kenya: Agroforestry Development and Environmental Sustainability. , 2010 VDM Verlag, Germany
Grainger, A. 1990. The threatening desert: Controlling desertification. Earthscan Publications Ltd., London. 359 p.
Haile, F. 1991. Women Fuelwood Carriers in Addis Ababa and the Peri-Urban Forest. Report to the Government of Norway, the International Development Research Centre and the National Urban Planning Institute, Geneva, International Labour Office.
Hibajene, S. J. and A. Ellegard. 1994. Charcoal Transportation and Distribution: A Study of the Lusaka Market. Energy, Environment and Development Series 33, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
Hoffman, M. T. & Todd, S. W. 2000. A national review of land degradation in South Africa: The influence of biophysical and socio-economic factors. Journal of Southern African Studies. 26 (4): 743-758.
Huschke, R.E. (ed.) 1959. Glossary of meteorology: Boston, American Meteorological Society, 638 p.
Iiyama, M., Kristjanson, P., Ogutu, J., Maitina, J., Kariuki, P., Morimoto, Y. And Baur, H., 2008. Conservation, natural resource management and development challenges in rural Africa: Evidence from east Africa. In: Natural Resources. Nover Science Publisher, Inc.
IUCN 2001. Regional workshop on community involvement in forest management in Eastern and Southern Africa. IUCN Eastern Africa Programme, Kampala, Uganda. Forest and Social Perspectives in Conservation No. 6. 25 p.
Kadomura, H. (ed.) 1997. Data book of desertification/land degradation. Centre for Global Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan. 68 p.
Kaimowitz, D., 2002. Forests and Rural Livelihoods in Sub-Sahara Africa. Forests in Poverty Reduction Strategies: Capturing the potential. Tuusula, Finland EFI Proceedings 47 (2003),
Karnieli A., U. Gilad, M. Ponzet, T. Svoray, R. irzadinov, O. Fedorina, 2008. Assessing land-cover change and degradation in the Central Asian deserts using satellite image processing and geostatistical methods. Journal of Arid Environments, 72: 2093–2105.
Kindt, R., van Breugel, P., Lillesø, J.-P.B., Bingham, M., Sebsebe Demissew, Dudley, C., Friis, I., Gachathi, F., Kalema, J., Mbago, F., Minani, V., Moshi, H.N., Mulumba, J., Namaganda, M., Ndangalasi, H.J., Ruffo, C.K., Jamnadass, R. and Graudal, L., 2011. Potential natural vegetation of Eastern Africa. Volume 3: Description and tree species composition for woodland and wooded grassland types. Forest & Landscape Working Paper 63-2011
Kürsten, E., 1999. Fuelwood production in Agroforestry systems for sustainable land use and CO2 mitigation. Ecological Engineering 6: 69-72.
Mahony, D., 1990. Trees of Somalia. Field guide for development workers. Oxfam.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being. Dryland Systems. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC
Mogaka, H., Gacheke, S., Turpie, J., Emerton, L. and Karanja, F., 2001. Economic Aspects of Community Involvement in Sustainable Forest Management in Eastern and Southern Africa.
IUCN, 2001. Eastern Africa Regional Office Forest and Social Perspectives in Conservation, No. 8, Nairobi.
Olsson, K. 1985. Desertification and land degradation on perspective. In: Poulsen, E. and Lawesson, J. (eds.). Dryland degradation: causes and consequences. Aarhus University Press. pp. 5-13.
Oxfam GB, 2003. Achieving EFA through Responsive Education Policy and Practice for Nomadic and Pastoralist Children: What can Agencies do? Unpublished paper, Oxford: Oxfam GB .
Oxfam GB 2005a. Pastoralist Education Learning Resource: A compilation of information on pastoralist education programmes in Horn and East Africa’, Nairobi.
Oxfam GB, 2005b. Beyond the Mainstream, Education and Gender Equality Series, Programme Insights. Oxford: Oxfam GB.
Pantuliano S. and Pavanello S. 2009. Taking drought into account: Addressing chronic vulnerability among pastoralists in the Horn of Africa, Overseas Development Institute, UK .
Social Development Papers (SDP), 2006. Remittances and Economic Development in Somalia: An Overview. Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, Paper No. 38/ November.
Tyson, W., 1995. Ecosystem restoration: theory, practice, and evidence. In: Roundy, B.A., McArthur, E.D., Haley, J.S., Mann, D.K. (Compilers), Proceedings of the Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, October 19-21, 1993. General Technical Report INT-GTR-315. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT, pp. 116-118.
UNCED 1992. Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; Earth Summit Agenda 21. Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992. New York: United Nations. 300 p.
UNDP, 2003. The Global Drylands Imperative: Land tenure reform and the Drylands. Drylands Development Centre. Nairobi, Kenya.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2010. Assessment of Development Results: Evaluation of UNDP Contribution. Somalia Evaluation Office.
UNEP, 1997. World atlas of desertification. Edward Arnold, London, UK.
UNICEF-Somalia 1993. Strategies on Nomadic Education Delivery. Education Unit, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Somalia, UNICEF Somalia, Document 1103.
World Bank, 2007. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. Washington DC: The World Bank.
World Conservation Union (IUCN), 2006. Country Environmental Profile for Somalia. The European Commission Somalia Operations Office, Nairobi, Kenya.
The National 2012. Charcoal exports from Somalia banned. Available at: http://www.thenational.ae/news/uae-news/charcoal-exports-from-somalia-banned Accessed on 30.3.2013