The Role of Non-Wood Forest Products in Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Urban Ghana
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2014, Pages: 307-312
Received: Aug. 17, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 6, 2014;
Published: Sep. 20, 2014
Views 2888 Downloads 152
Mawutor K. Glover, Department of Agro Enterprise, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ho Polytechnic, P. O. Box 217, Ho, Ghana
Edinam K. Glover, Faculty of Law, P. O. Box 4, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Non Wood Forest Product (NWFP) is as old as the existence of humans and has gained increasing importance. The study focused on processing NWFPs in urban Ghana with special reference to the bushmeat commodity chain that supplies the urban areas. It described the existing forms of bushmeat processing requirements and constraints. It also examined the contribution of bushmeat to poverty alleviation and food security through its use, processing and trade as a NWFP. Methods for data collection involved the use of qualitative research approach in form of selective case study approach. In line with this approach, the study used both participant observation combined with focus group discussion to collect information from a cross section of primary actors in the bushmeat trade. Results showed that processing bushmeat for sale vary from place to place. It is conveyed to the major markets either smoked or fresh. Those using bushmeat for medicinal purposes cut the meat into various parts and dry them for their clientele. Results also showed that bushmeat trading activities involve a chain of actors composed of hunters, wholesalers and chop bar owners/retailers. This livelihood activity contributes highly to food security and household incomes of actors of the trade.
Mawutor K. Glover,
Edinam K. Glover,
The Role of Non-Wood Forest Products in Poverty Alleviation and Food Security in Urban Ghana, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2014, pp. 307-312.
Simmons, A. J. 1996. ICRAF's strategy for domestication of non-wood tree products. Non-wood forest products 9. FAO, Rome, Italy. pp. 8-22.
Falconer J. & Arnold J.E.M. 1989. Household food security and forestry: an analysis of socioeconomic issues. Community Forestry Note 1. FAO, Rome.
Ros-Tonen, M. A. F. & Wiersum, K. F. 2003. The importance of non-timber forest products for forest-based rural livelihoods: An evolving research agenda. Paper presented at the International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity. May 19-23, 3003., Bonn, Germany.
FAO, 1995. Report of the International Expert Consultation on Non-Wood Forest Products. Yogyakarta, 17-27 January 1995, FAO: Food and Nutrition Division, Rome.
Falconer, J. 1993. Non-timber forest products in Southern Ghana: Main report. Overseas Development Administration (ODA).
Dei, G.J. S. 1989. Hunting and Gathering in a Ghanaian Rain Forest Community. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 2:225-243.
Dei, G.J. S. 1991. The Deitary Habits of a Ghanaian Farming Community. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 2: 225-243.
Dei, G.J. S. 1991. A Ghanaian Town Revisited: Changes and Continuties in Local Adaptive Strategies, African Affairs, 91(362): 95-120.
de Merode, E.K. H. and Cowlishaw, G. 2004. The value of Bushmeat and Other Wild Foods to Rural Households Living in Extreme Poverty in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Biological Conservation. 118: 573-581.
Davies, G. 2002. Bushmeat and international development. Conservation Biology 16: 587-589.
Adams, W.M. 2004. Against Extinction: The story of conservation, Earthscan, UK.
Wilkie, D. S. & Carpenter, J. F. 1999. Bushmeat hunting in the Congo Basin: an assessment of impacts and options for mitigation, Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 927-955.
Bowen-Jones, E., Brown, D. & Robinson, E. J. 2002. Assessment of the solution orientated research needed to promote a more sustainable bushmeat trade in Central and West Africa. Report to the Wildlife and Countryside Directorate, DEFRA.
Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bennett, E.L. & The Society for Conservation Biology 2002 Annual Conference Wild Meat Group (2003) Wild meat – the bigger picture. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 351–357.
Cowlishaw, G., Mendelson, S. & RowcliVe, J. M., 2005. Structure and operation of a bushmeat commodity chain in southwestern Ghana. Conservation Biology 19, 139–149.
Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. 1998. Wildlife Development Plan 1998-2003. Volume 6. Sustainable Use of Bushmeat. Rupublic of Ghana. Wildlife Department, Ministry of Lands and Forestry, Accra.
Stephenson. P. J. 2003. The future directions of WWF’S bushmeat work in Africa. WWF.
Byron N. & Arnold M. 1999. What futures for the people in tropical forest. World Development 27(5): 789-805.
Hakim, C. 1987. Research Design: Strategies and Choices in the Design of Social Research, London, Unwin Hyman, pages 61 - 75.
Robson, C. 2002. Real World Research, Second Edition, Blackwell Publishing, U K.
Casley, D.J. & Lury, D.A. 1987. Data Collection on Developing Countries, Second Edition, Oxford University Press,U.K.
Bryman, A. 2004. Social research methods. Second Edition. 592p.
Brookes, D. 2007. Understanding qualitative research and its value in healthcare. Nursing Times.Net, 103:32-33. Available at: www.nursingtimes.net [Accessed 05/02/2014].
Flick, U. 2002. An introduction to qualitative research. Second edition, Sage, London. 310 p.
DeWalt, K. M., DeWalt, B. R., & Wayland, C. B. 1998. Participant observation. In: H. R. Bernard (Ed.), Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. pp. 259-299.
Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (eds.) 2000. Handbook of qualitative research, Second edition. Thousan Oaks, California: Sage.
Curasi, C.F. 2001. A critical exploration of Face-to-Face interviewing vs. Computer-mediated interviewing. International Journal of Market Research, 43: 361-75.
May, T. 1997. Social research: Issues, methods and processes. Buckinggham London. Open University Press.
Silverman, D. 2001. Interpreting qualitative data. Methods for analyzing talk text and interaction. Second edition. Sage Publications, London. 325 p.
Messerschmidt, D. A. 1995. Rapid appraisal for community forestry: RA Process and Rapid Diagnostic Tools, IIED, London. 136 p.
Mendelson, Samantha, Cowlishaw, Guy & Rowcliffe, J. Marcus 2003. Anatomy of a Bushmeat Commodity Chain in Takoradi, Ghana. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 31(1): 73 – 100.
Opare-Ankrah, Y. 2007. The bushmeat trade, livelihood securities and alternative wildlife resources. A Case Study of Mankessim and its environs in the Mfantseman District (Ghana). MPhil. Thesis in Development Studies, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim. 126 p.
Swensson, J. 2005. Bushmeat Trade in Techiman, Ghana, West Africa. Department of Animal Ecology, Committee of Tropical Ecology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Ntiamoa- Baidu, Y. 1992. Local Perceptions and Values of Wildlife Reserves to Communities in the vicinity of Forest National Parks in Western Ghana in a report on protected area development in south–western Ghana, Oxford Environment and Development Group, U.K.