The Efficacy of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus Isolates in the Control of Chickpea Wilt Pathogens
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 346-351
Received: Aug. 30, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 15, 2014; Published: Sep. 30, 2014
Views 3051      Downloads 245
Hanan Ibrahim Mudawi, The Environmental, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute, National Centre for Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan
Mohamed Osman Idris, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Khartoum University, Khartoum, Sudan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Dual experiments were carried out in 2007 at the laboratories of the National Center of Research, to test the antagonistic efficacy of three Trichoderma spp and 23 Bacillus isolates, for the control of chickpea wilt and root- rot pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and F. solani adopting CRD. Trichoderma harzianum was found highly antagonistic compared to Trichoderma viride isolates as it inhibited the mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and F. solani by 85.29% and 86.21% after 12 days of in-vitro incubation, whereas T. viride (isolate Tv1) gave an inhibition percentage of 81.88% and 76.64%. Antagonistic hyphae of T. harzianum showed parasitic behavior against Fusarium spp. The parasite reached and recognized F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris by coiling around the hyphae of the pathogen and disintegrating the hyphae and spores. Only 17 out of 23 Bacillus isolates from 130 colonies of bacteria screened showed significantly antagonistic properties against wilt pathogens. Only B3, B16, B2, B15and B20 proved to be the most effective among the rest of isolates and were considered strongly antagonistic against F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and F. solani in-vitro, with an inhibition percentage range of 57.57% - 64.65%. The management of Chickpea root/rot wilt complex disease incited by F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and F. solani could be achieved successively by the use of bioagents derived from various fungal and bacterial isolates.
Antagonisms, Bacillus spp, Biocontrol, Cicer arietinum L, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride
To cite this article
Hanan Ibrahim Mudawi, Mohamed Osman Idris, The Efficacy of Trichoderma spp. and Bacillus Isolates in the Control of Chickpea Wilt Pathogens, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2014, pp. 346-351. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20140305.13
R. S. Singh, “Plant diseases, 6th ed., Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. 1996, pp. 98-102.
P. Castillo, M. P. Mora-Rodríguez, J. A. Navas-Cortés and R. M. Jiménez- Díaz “Interactions of Pratylenchus thornei and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on chickpea”. Phytopathology, 1998, 88:828-836.
Y. Elad, I. Chet, and J. Katan, “Trichoderma harzianum: a biocontrol agent effective against Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani,” Phytopathology, 70, 1980, pp. 119–121.
L. G. Hjeljord, A. Stensvand, and A. Tronsmo,” Antagonism of nutrient-activated conidia of Trichoderma harzianum (atroviride) P1 against Botrytis cinerea,” Phytopathology, 91, 2001, pp. 1172-1180.
J. W. Kloepper, R. Rodriguez-Ubana, G. W. Zehnder, J. F. Murphy, E. Sikora, and C. Fernandez, “Plant root-bacterial interactions in biological control of soilborne diseases and potential extension to systemic and foliar diseases” Australasian Plant Pathology , 28, 1999, pp.21-26.
J. Hallmann, A. Quadt-Hallmann, W.F Mahaffee, and J.W. Kloepper,” Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops,” Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 43, 1997, 895-914.
R. Law and D.H. Lewis,” Biotic environments and maintenance of sex: Some evidence from mutualistic symbioses,” Biological Journal Linnean Society, 20: 1993, pp. 249-276.
W.F. Mahaffee, and J.W. Kloepper, “Temporal changes in the bacterial communities of soil rhizosphere and endorhiza associated with field- grown cucumber (Cumcumis sativus L.),” Microbial Ecology, 34, 1997, pp. 210- 223.
S. Abeysinghe. “Biological control of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli the causal agent of root rot of bean using Bacillus subtilis CA32 and Trichoderma harzianum RU01”. Ruhuna Journal of Science. Vol. 2, 2007, pp. 82-88,.
S.I.Harlapur, M.S. kulkarni, M.C. Wali, and Srikantkulkarni, “Evaluation of Plant Extracts, Bio-agents and Fungicides against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs. Causing Turcicum Leaf Blight of Maize,” Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 20(3) 2007, pp. 541-544.
H.W. Seeley, and P.J. Van Demark, Microbes in action. A laboratory manual of Microbiology, 3rd ed., W.H Freeman and Company U.S.A. 1981, pp. 350.
J.F. Leslie and B. A. Summerell, Fusarium laboratory manual, 1st ed., Blackwell Publishing, Asia, 2006, pp. 387.
D. Claus and, R. C. W. Berkeley. “Genus Bacillus,” in, Bergey’s Manual of Systamic Bacteriology, vol. 2, P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair and, N. S. Sharp, Eds. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1986. pp. 1105-1139.
W Gams, and J. Bissett, Morphology and identification of Trichoderma. In, Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Basic biology, taxonomy and genetics, vol 1. G. E. Harman, and C. P Kubicek, Eds. Taylor and Francis Ltd, London, 1998, pp. 3-31.
F. Besson, F. Peypoux, G. Michel, and, L. Delcambe. “Identification of antibiotics of iturn group in various strains of Bacilllus subtillus”. Journal of Antibiotics 1978, 31: 284-288.
A.C. Odebode, “Control of postharvest pathogens of fruits by culture filtrates from antagonistic fungi. Journal of plant protection research, vol. 46, No. 1. 2006
K. A Gomez and A. A. Gomez, Statistical Procedures for Agriculture Research. 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, U.S.A. 1984, pp. 680.
Y.M. Somasekhara, T.B. Anilkumar, and A.H. Siddarad, “Biocontrol of pigeonpea wilt Fusarium udum,” Mysore J. Agric., 30, 1996, pp. 159-163.
P. S. Nikam, G. P. Jagtap, and P. L. Sontakke, “Management of chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris,” African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 2 (12), 2007, pp. 692-697.
M. Lorito, SL. Woo, I. Garcia Fernandez, G. Colucci, G.E. Harman, J.A. Pintor-Toro, E. Filippone, S. Mucciflora, C.B. Lawrence, A. Zoina, S. Tuzun, and F. Scala, “Genes from mycoparasitic fungi as a source for improving plant resistance to fungal pathogens,” USA Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 95, 1998, pp. 7860-7865.
C.R. Howell, “Mechanisms employed by Trichoderma species in the biological control of plant diseases: The history and evolution of current concepts,” Plant Disease, 87, 2003, pp. 4-10.
D. Klein, and D.E. Evenigh, “Ecology of Trichoderma,” in Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Basic biology, taxonomy and genetics, vol1, G. E. Harman; and C. P Kubicek, Eds. Taylor and Francis Ltd, London, 1998, pp. 57- 74.
R. K. Jayaswal, M. A. Fernandez, and, R. O. Schroeder, “Isolation and characterization of a Pseudo¬monas strain that restricts growth of various phytopathogenic fungi,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 56, 1990, pp. 1053–1058.
T.J. Mcloughlin, J.P. Quinn, A. Betterman, and R. Bookland, “Pseudomonas cepacia suppression of sun-flower wilt fungus and role of antifungal compounds in controlling the disease,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 1992, pp. 1760–1763.
J.R. Montealegre, R. Herrera, J.C. Velasquez, P. Silva, X. Besoain, and L.M. Perez, “Biocontrol of root and crown rot in tomatoes under greenhouse conditions using Trichoderma harzianum and Paenibacillus lentimorbus. Additional effect of solarization,” Electronic Biotech., 8, 2005, pp. 249-257.
L. E Hanson, and, C. R. Howell, “Elicitors of plant defence responses from biocontrol strains of Trichoderma virens”. Phytopathology, 94, 2004, pp.171-176.
B. Padmodaya, and H.R. Reddy, “Screening of Trichoderma spp. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causing wilt in tomato,” Indian J. Mycol. Plant Pathol., 26, 1996, pp. 266–270.
D. Kumar, and S.C. Dubey,” Management of collar rot of pea by the integration of biological and chemical methods,” Indian Phytopath., 57, 2001, pp. 62–66.
D.D. Metcalf, and C.C. Wilson,” The process of antagonism of Sclerotium cepivorum in white rot affected onion roots by Trichoderma koningii,” Plant Pathol., 50, 2001, pp. 249-257.
E. Sharon, M. Bar-Eyai, I. Chet, A. Hewrra-Estrella, O. Kleifeld, and Y. Spiegal, “Biological control of the rootknot nematode Meloidogyne javanica by Trichoderma harzianum,” Phytopathol. 91, 2001, pp. 687-693.
S.C. Dubey, “Integrated management of web blight of mung bean by bio-seed treatment,” .Indian Phytopath., 56, 2003, pp. 34–38.
R.K. Poddar, D.V. Singh, and S.C. Dubey, “Integrated application of Trichoderma harzianum mutants and carbendazim to manage chickpea wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris),” Indian J. Agric. Sci., 74, 2004, pp. 346–348.
F. Zarrin. M. Saleemi, M. Zia, T Sultan, M. Aslam, R, U. Rehman, and M, C. Fayyaz, “Antifungal activity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria isolates against Rhizoctonia solani in wheat,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 8 (2), 2009, pp. 219-225.
M. M. Sarhan, S.M. Ezzat, A.A. Tohamy, A.A. El-Essawy, and F.A. Mohamed, “Biocontrol of Fusarium tomato wilt diseases by Bacillus subtilis” Egypt. J. Microbiol., 36, 2001, pp. 376-386.
D. R. Fravel, “Commercialization and Implementation of Biocontrol,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43, 2005, 337-359.
H. Kim, J. Park, S. Choi, K. Choi, G.P. Lee, S. J. Ban, H. C. Lee, and S. C. Kim, Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control,” The Journal of Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 3, 2003, pp.196-201.
F. Vinale, K. Sivasithamparam, E. L. Ghisalberti, R. Marra, S. L. Woo, and M. Lorito, “Trichoderma–plant–pathogen interactions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 2008, pp. 1–10.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186