Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 257-262
Received: Jul. 29, 2015;
Accepted: Oct. 15, 2015;
Published: Oct. 30, 2015
Views 4646 Downloads 143
Ibeawuchi I. I., Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Obiefuna J. C., Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Tom C. T., Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Ihejirika G. O., Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Omobvude S. O., Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
The paper defines organic agriculture as holistic management system which promotes agro-ecosystem's health, biodiversity, biological cycle and biological activity without the external inputs of synthetic chemicals such as: fertilizers, pesticides, hormones and feed additives. Benefit include among others: high and comparable yield though could be supported by those receiving support from European community that provides monitory help to farmers as well as with conventional farming. Current practices of organic agriculture are a modification and continuation of indigenous practices that are more prominent in Nigeria. More research and funding by government and private sectors have been recommended.
Ibeawuchi I. I.,
Obiefuna J. C.,
Tom C. T.,
Ihejirika G. O.,
Omobvude S. O.,
Indigenous and Current Practices in Organic Agriculture in Nigeria: A Review, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2015, pp. 257-262.
Agroforestry Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agroforestry).
Agromisa (2003). Agroforestry CTA. Wageningen Netherlands.
Asiegbu I.E. and Oikeh S.O. (1993). Growth and yield of tomato to sources andrates of organic manure in ferralitic soils. Bioresource Technology. 45: 21-25.
Atungwu, J.J., Aiyelaagbe, I.O.O., Sobowale, P.A.S., Oni, A.O. and Garba, S.H., (2009). Integrating African Traditional Farming and Organic Agriculture. In: Organic Agriculture for Health, Wealth and Environmental Conservation. Proceedings of the fifth national conference of organic agricultural project intertiary institutions in Nigeria. FUTO. November, 15-19, 2009.
Boron, S. (2006) Building resilience for an unpredictable future: How organic agriculture can help fanners adapt to climate change, FAO Rome, August2006. P6.
Buys, J. (1993) "Conversion Towards organic agriculture in Russia - A preliminary study" Biological Codex Alimentarius commission (2001). Organically produced foods. Rome, Italy: FAO AND who 77pp.
David, C., B.; (1996). Towards modeling the conversion of stockless farming to organic fanning. On-farm research in south East of France. In New Research in organic Agriculture. N. H. Kristensen and H. Hogh-Jensen pp 23-27. Tholey-Theley., IFOAM: 23-27.
Evans, J. (1992). Plantation forestry in the tropics (second edition). Oxford University press Inc. New York. P6.
Gholz, H. L., (1987). Agroforesty: realities, possibilities, and potentials.(http://books.google.com/books7id-YlYflgzthEsC&p^PA137&Ipg=PA137&dq^Year+agrofores1ry+came+mto+mgeria%3F&l&sig=pLhySxcjWsl sHueqfvd6vOsji3g&hlen).
Gliricidia sepuim Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gliricidiasepuim).
Huxham, S. K., (2005). The effect of conversion strategy on theyield of the first organic crop. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 106(4) 345-357.
Ibeawuchi, I.I. and Ofoh M.C. (2000). Productivity of maize cassava/food legume mixtures in south-eastern Nigeria. Nig. J. of Agric. Rural Development 1(1): 19.
International federation of organic agriculture movement (2006). The IFOAM normsfor organic production and processing. Version 2005 Bonn, Germany.
Kellogg, C.E. and Orvedai, A.C. (1996). Potentially arable soils of the world andcritical measures for their use. Advances in Agronomy. 21, 109-70.
Lampkin, N. (1990). Organic farming. Ipswich, farming press Books.
Lampkin, N. (1992). The economic implication of conversion from conventional to organic fanning systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept of economics and agricultural economics, university of Wales, aberystwyth.
Lampkim, N. (1999). Converting Europe- The potential for organic farming as mainstream. Paper presented to 1 1th National Organic fanning conference. Cirencester.
Lang, S.S. (2005) Organic farming produces same corn and soybean yields as conventional farms but consumes less energy and no pesticide. Cornell university News Service.
LEI (1990). Productie en atzet Van BD- en Eko-Produkten (production end economics or bio-dynamic food). National agro-economic institute of the whether lands. Band 2. LEI medelingen 425, Den Haeag. 89p.
Mader, P. (2002). Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic fanning. Science 296(5573): 169-1697.
Mader, P. (2004). Soil fertility in sustainable farming system. KSALT, Journal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry 143 (1): 37-40. Oil of cloves wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/oil_of_cloves).
Pretty, J.N. (1995). Regeneration agriculture: policies and practices for sustainability and self-Reliance London, Washington. National academy press, Action Aidand Vikas.
Philipps L. and Welsh J.P. (1999). Ten years experience of all-arable rotations. Designing and testing crop rotations for organic farming. Foulum, Danish Research Centre for organic fanning.
Scialabba, E.N and C. Hattam, Eds. (2002). Organic agriculture, environment andfood security. Environmental and natural.
Scialabba, E. N. (2003). Organic agriculture: The challenges of sustaining food production while enhancing biodiversity. United Nations. The matic Group meeting on wild life, biodiversity and organic agriculture. Anakara, Turkey, 15-16 April 2003, FAO Corporate documents repository.
Stanhill, G. (1990). The comparative productivity of organic agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Vol30:1:1-26.
The encyclopedia of organic gardening (1978) organic matter. Rodale press, inc. U.S.A. 814-819.
Tom, C.T. and Asiegbu, I.E. (2002). Evaluation of short duration pigeon peacultivars in intercrop with FARZ-7 maize in derived savanna of Nigeria. International journals of agricultural science. Vol.2.
Van Elzakker, B. R. Witte et al. (1992). Benefits of diversity. New York. UNDP United Nations Development Programme.
VanMansvelt, J. D. and J. A. Mulder (1993). European feature for sustainable development: a contribution to the dialogue. Landscape and urban planning: 27: 67-90.
Van Mansvelt, J.D. and D. Znaor (1999) Criteria for the abiotic and biotic realm: environment and ecology. Checklist for sustainable landscape management. J.D. Van Mansvelt and M.J. Lubbe. Amsterdam-Lausanne-New York, Oxford, Shannon, Scingapore, Tokio, Elsevier.
Von Fragstein P. (1966). Organic arable farming a contradiction? Fourth congress of the ESA-Book of Abstracts, Colmar Cedex, European Society Agronomy.
Znaor, D. (1994) Ecological Agriculture: Analysis of the most commonly criticized aspects. Why shall Estonian Agriculture be Ecological? Proceedings of the international conference heed in tartu June 13, 1994; centre of Ecological Engineering tartu.
Znaor, D. (1995) Ekoloska Poljoprivreda suitrasnjice Ecological agriculture of tomorrow. Zagreb, Nakladin Zavod Globus.
Znaor, D. (1997) what future for sustainable agriculture? Danube watch 3(2): 2-3.
Znaor, D. and H. Kieft (2000). Environmental impact and macro-economic feasibility of organic agriculture in the Danube River Basin. The world grows organic: Proceedings of the 13th international IFO AM Scientific conference Basel, Switzerland.
Znaor, D. (2002): "Contribution of organic agriculture to macroeconomic and environmental performance of the countries with economic in transition". Vagos research papers 53(6) Lithuanias University of agriculture, Akademija.