Improving Rice Yield in Tidal Floodplain: Optimizing Seedling Age and Transplanting Date
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 48-56
Received: Apr. 28, 2016; Accepted: May 19, 2016; Published: Jun. 6, 2016
Views 3440      Downloads 98
Abdul Hamid, Agrarian Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. Jafar Ullah, Agronomy Department, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. A. Siddique, Agrarian Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. Ali Akbar, Agrarian Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. Matiar Rahman, Agrarian Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. G. Neogi, Agrarian Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. Faruque H. Mollah, Agrarian Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. Abdur Razzaque, Krishi Gobeshona Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh
M. Ashraf Hossain, Pulses Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Article Tools
Follow on us
Major constraint of growing rice in south central coastal region of Bangladesh is the tidal submergence of land and crops. Indigenous rice is generally grown in tidal floodplain harvesting poor yield. Transplanting seedlings of optimum age on appropriate date may potentially increase rice yield. We carried out on-farm trials for evaluating growth and yield performance of two indigenous rice varieties (Sadamota and Lalmota) and a high yielding variety (BRRI dhan 44) in response to variable seedling age and transplanting dates for two years. In the first year, 45 d and 60 d old seedlings of Sadamota were transplanted on a single date either in rows at 40 cm x 40 spacing or following farmers’ traditional practice of random transplanting. The second year’s trial compared the performance of one indigenous variety Lalmota and one modern variety BRRI dhan 44. Two age groups (45 d and 60 d) of seedlings of Lalmota and single age group (45 d) of BRRI dhan 44 were transplanted on two different dates (August 8 and August 24). First year’s trial results indicated that irrespective of seedling age, transplanting in rows produced higher yield compared with farmers’ traditional practice. In the second year’s trial, late transplanting of 45 d old seedlings of both the varieties gave higher yield compared with early transplanting. BRRI dhan 44 produced significantly higher yield than Lalmota. Late transplanting of 60 d old seedlings of Lalmota produced higher yield than transplanting younger seedlings. Lower yield of earlier planted rice was associated with greater hill mortality and seedling damage, and production of relatively lesser number of tillers and panicles. For increasing yield in tidal floodplain, late planting (late August) with 60 d old seedlings of indigenous varieties in rows (40 cm x 40 cm) has been suggested.
Grain Weight, Indigenous Rice Varieties, Planting Date, Seedling Age, Seedling Characters, Spikelets, Tidal Floodplain, Tillers, Transplanting Method
To cite this article
Abdul Hamid, M. Jafar Ullah, M. A. Siddique, M. Ali Akbar, M. Matiar Rahman, M. G. Neogi, M. Faruque H. Mollah, M. Abdur Razzaque, M. Ashraf Hossain, Improving Rice Yield in Tidal Floodplain: Optimizing Seedling Age and Transplanting Date, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2016, pp. 48-56. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20160503.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
USDA ERS. Rice Yearbook. United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, Washington DC.,
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO). Report on Tidal Area Study, Fisheries Resources Survey System. FAO/UNDP-BGD/79/015. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Dhaka, 1985.
AUERBACH, L. W., GOODBRED JR, S. L., MONDAL, D.R., WILSON, C. A., AHMED, K. R., ROY, K., STICKLER, M. S., SMALL, C., GILLIGAN, J. M., ACKERLY, B. A. Flood risk of natural and embanked landscapes on the Ganges-Brahmaputra tidal delta plain. Nature Climate Change 5:153-157, 2015.
OLIVER-SMITH A. Sea level rise and the vulnerability of coastal peoples: responding to the local challenges of global climate change in the 21st century. UNU-EHS Series No. 7/2009. UNU Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Bonn, Germany.56 pp, 2009.
BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (BARC). Use of Fallow Lands and Cop Production Planning for Southern Region. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Dhaka, 64 pp, 2011.
SUMICH, J. L. An Introduction to the Biology of Marine Life, sixth edition. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown. pp. 30-35, 1996.
AHMED, M. S., BASHAR, M. K., WAZUDDIN, M., SHAMSUDDIN, A. K. M. Morpho-physico-chemical characterization of balam rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces of Bangladesh. Int. J. Plant Breeding & Genetics 9(3):163-176. 2015.
ISLAM, N., KABIR, M. Y., ADHIKARY S. K., JAHAN, M. S. Yield performance of six local aromatic rice cultivars. IOSR J. Agr. Vet. Sci. 6(3):58-62, 2013.
ALIM, A., SEN, J. L., ULLAH, M. T., CHOWDHURY, M. A. Review of Half a Century of Rice Research in East Pakistan. Govt. of East Pakistan, EPG Press, Dhaka.119 pp, 1962.
ULLAH, M. J., RAHMAN, M. M., MOLLA, M. R. I., MOLLAH, M. F. H., ALAM, M. N., HAQUE, M. M. HAMID, A. Influence of the number of seedlings per hill on the performance of traditional rice cultivar Moulata in tidal floodplain of southern delta region of Bangladesh. Intl. J. Adv. Res. 3: 143–148, 2015.
SINHA, A. K., MISHRA, P. K. Are the traditional rice varieties low yielding? A case study on traditional rice varieties of lateritic region of West Bengal. Intl. J. Advanced Res. 6: 292-296. 2015.
HAMID, A., ULLAH, M. J., MOLLAH, M. F. H., AKBAR, M. A. Traditional rice varieties perform better in tidal floodplain. International J. Adv Res., 3, 1316-1321. 2015.
SAITO K, LINQUIST B, ATLIN GN, PHANTHABOON K, SHIRAIWA T, HORIE T. Response of traditional and improved upland rice cultivars to N and P fertilizers in northern Laos. Field Crops Res. 96: 216-223, 2006.
AMIN, A. K. M. K., HAQUE, M. A. Seedling age influence on rice (Oryza sativa L.) performance. Philippine Journal of Science, 138, 219-226. 2009.
HAMID. A., ULLAH,J., HOSSAIN, A., ISLAM, A., AKHTAR, S. Response of indigenous rice cultivars to applied fertilizers in tidal floodplain of south central coastal region of Bangladesh. Acad. J. Agric. Res. 4(4): 168-175. 2016.
ROY, B. C., SATTER, S. A. Tillering dynamics of transplanted rice as influenced by seedling age. Trop. Agric. 69:353-356, 1992.
RAHIMPOUR, L., DALIRI, M. S., MOUSAVI, A. A. Effect of seedling age on yield and yield component of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.). Annals of Biological Research, 4:72-76, 2013.
DEB D, LÄSSIG J, KLOFT M. A critical assessment of the importance of seedling age in the system of rice intensification (SRI) in Eastern India. Expl Agric.48: 326–346. 201.
PATRA, P. S., HAQUE, S. Effect of seedling age on tillering pattern and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under system of rice intensification. ARPN J. Agril. Biol. Sci. 6(11): 33-35, 2011.
SHAMSUZZAMAN, K. M., HAQUE, M. M. Performance of modern varieties of transplanted aman rice and mungbean in selected locations in tidal floodplain. In: Jafarullah, M., Ed., Crop Production in the Coastal Ecosystem-Challenges and Opportunities, Agrarian Research Foundation, Dhaka, pp. 26-30, 2010.
PERVIN, M. S., GOMOSTA, A. R. AHMED, J. U. Effects of age on the survival and recovery of submerged rice (Oryza sativa l.) seedlings. Bangladesh J. Bot. 39(1): 21-28, 2010.
GINIGADDARA, G. A. S., RANAMUKHAARAC, S. L. Study of age of seedlings at transplanting on growth dynamics and yield of rice under alternating flooding and suspension of irrigation of water management. Recent Research in Science and Technology 3(3): 76-88, 2011, 2011.
SANCHEZ, P. A. AND LARREA, N. Influence of seedling age at transplanting on rice performance. Agron. J. 64, 828-833, 1972.
LIU Q, WU X, MA J, CHEN B, XIN C. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of ice under mechanical transplantation pattern. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0123330. 2015.
MUTHUKRISHNAN, P., PONNUSAMY, K., SANTHI, P., SUBRAMANIAN, N. Effect of transplanting time on the performance of rice hybrids in Cauvery delta zone. Madras Agric. J., 87:506-507, 2000.
HAMID, A., ULLAH, M. J., HAQUE, M. M., MOLLAH, M. F. H., RAHMAN, M. M. Improving grain yield of indigenous rice in tidal floodplain of southern Bangladesh: Effect of seedling age and transplanting method. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1538-1546, 2015.
DEY, R., BISWAS, M., MIAH, M. N. H., MANDAL, P. Agronomic performances of rice varieties at different transplanting ages. Intl. J. Plant & Soil Sci. 6(3): 124-139(2015).
PASUQUIN, E., LAFARGE, T. AND TUBANA, B. Transplanting young seedlings in irrigated rice fields: Early and high tiller production enhanced grain yield. Field Crops Research, 105, 141-155., 2008.
SARKER, T K,HOSSAIN, M D, SALAM, M A, RABBANI, MG. Effect of seedling age and method of transplanting on the yield of aman rice. Progress. Agric. 24: 9 – 16, 2012.
CATLING, H. D., ISLAM, Z. Effect of fertilizer on traditional deepwater rice varieties in Bangladesh, pp. 157-164. Proc. 1978 Intl Deepwater Rice Workshop. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 1979.
GILL, P. S., SHAHI, H. N. Effect of nitrogen levels in relation to age of seedlings and time of transplanting on the growth, yield and milling characteristics of rice. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 57:630-634, 1987.
FRIZZELL, D. L., WILSON, C. E., JR., NORMAN, R. J., SLATON, N. A., RICHARDS, A. L., RUNSICK, C. E. Influence of row spacing and seeding rate on grain yield of hybrid rice. University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series 550:294-297. Fayetteville, Ark., 2006.
YIN, X., STRUIK, P. C., TANG, J., QI, C. LIU, T. Model analysis of flowering phenology in recombinant inbred lines of barley. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 959–965, 2005. doi:10.1093/jxb/eri089.
SLAFER, G. A. Genetic basis of yield as viewed from a crop physiologist’s perspective. Annals of Applied Biology 142, 117–128, 2003.
JAHN, E, MCKAY, J. K., MAULEON, R., STEPHENS, J., MCNALLY, K. L., BUSH, D. R., LEUNG, H., LEACH, E. Genetic variation in biomass traits among 20 diverse rice varieties. 155:157-168, 2011.
BANGLADESH RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (BRRI). Cultivation of Modern Rice. Joydebpur, Gazipur, 47 p., 2011.
ROY, B. C., HOSSAIN, M. A., KHAN, M. A. I. Suitable transplanting time for modern T. Aman rice varieties in tidal non-saline wetland situation in Bangladesh. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 6:661-665, 2003.
PANDE, H. K., MITTRA, B,N., GHOSH, B. C. Flood susceptibility of semi dwarf rices and investigation on their suitability for low lying areas. In: Proceedings of the 1978 International Deepwater Rice Workshop, T. R. Hargrove, G. S. Argosino (Eds), pp. 185-195. IRRI, Los Banos, 1979.
CHATURVEDI, G. S., RAM, P. C., SINGH, A. K., RAM, P., INGRAM, K. T., SINGH, B. B., SINGH, R. K., SINGH, V. P. Carbohydrate status of rainfed lowland rice in relation to submergence, drought and shade tolerance. In: Singh, V. P., Singh, R. K., Singh, B. B., Zeigler, R. S., editors. Physiology of Stress Tolerance in Rice. 1996. pp. 103–122. Proceedings of the International conference on stress physiology of rice, 1994, Lucknow, UP, India Los Baños, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.
ITO, O., ELLA, E., KAWANO, N. Physiological basis of submergence tolerance in rainfed lowland rice ecosystem. Field Crops Research 64: 75–90, 1999.
JACKSON, M. B., RAM, P. C. Physiological and molecular basis of susceptibility and tolerance of rice plants to complete submergence. Annals of Botany91: 227–241, 2003.
SAUTER, M. Rice in deepwater. ‘How to take heed against a sea of troubles’. Naturwissenschaften87: 289-303, 2000.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186