Enhancement of Colonisation of Soybean Roots by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Using Vermicompost and Biochar
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 71-78
Received: Jun. 6, 2016;
Accepted: Jun. 16, 2016;
Published: Jun. 30, 2016
Views 3710 Downloads 154
Njunge Leah Wathira, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Wachira Peter, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Okoth Sheila, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Pollution and contamination of soil is one of the major concerns in the world today. Excessive use of synthetic fertilisers has caused tremendous harm to the environment and the human population indirectly. Chemical residues accumulated in crops that find their way to into the human food chain have been found to have adverse health effects. Enrichment of lakes with runoff from heavily-fertilised farms has resulted in eutrophication and pollution of water bodies. Application of organic matter and use of mycorrhiza have been recommended as ways of mitigating these problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of organic amendments on colonisation of soybean roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The study consisted of a field experiment of seven treatments with 3 replications in a complete randomized block design. The treatments were biochar (B), vermicompost (V), mycorrhiza (M), biochar and vermicompost (BV), biochar and mycorrhiza (BM), biochar, vermicompost and mycorrhiza (BVM), mycorrhiza and vermicompost (MV), and the control block which had no amendments (NT). Before planting of soybeans and application of amendments, soil samples were collected for characterization of soil chemical properties and mycorrhizal spores. Soybean seeds were planted in each plot. At flowering time, roots were screened for percentage mycorrhizal colonisation and dry mass of plants from each plot was taken. At harvest time, soil samples, plants and harvested soybeans from each plot were collected and dry weight taken. There was mean increase of 53.38% in levels of phosphorous and 15.33% of carbon in the soil after application of amendments. Levels of nitrogen decreased in all treatment blocks. There was a significant (P<0.0000) increase in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores after application of treatments. The colonization percentage of arbuscules in roots was highest (14.7%) in the bio char and vermicomposting blocks (BV) while the blocks without any treatment, NT, had the lowest colonization percentage of 1.2%. The highest dry weight of both shoots and roots were recorded in blocks treated with biochar which also had the highest weight of harvested soy bean seeds with a mean of 171.28g. Blocks treated with mycorrhiza had the lowest harvest weight of soybean seeds with a mean of 58.17g. From this study it was concluded that the organic amendments enhanced the activity of the already-present mycorrhizal fungi in the soil, without requiring the introduction of commercial mycorrhizal amendments and biochar enhances microbial activity which stimulates crop productivity.
Njunge Leah Wathira,
Enhancement of Colonisation of Soybean Roots by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Using Vermicompost and Biochar, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2016, pp. 71-78.
Adewole, M. B., Awotoye, O. O., Ohiembor, M. O. & Salami, A. O. (2010). Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on phytoremediating potential and yield of sunflower in Cd and Pb polluted soils. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 55 (1), 17-28.
Brundrett, M. (2009). Mycorrhizas in Natural Ecosystems. Advances In Ecological Research, 21, 171–313.
Nepolean, P., Jayanthi, R., Vidhya Palavi, R., Balamurugan, A., Kuberan, T., Beulah, T., & Premkumar, R. (2012). Role of Biofertilisers in Increasing Tea Productivity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, S 1443–S 1445.
Douds Jr., D. D, Lee, J., Uknalis, J., Boateng, A. A. & Ziegler-Ulsh, C., (2014). Pelletized biochar as a carrier for AM fungi in the on-farm system of inoculum production in compost and vermiculite mixtures. Compost Science & Utilization, 22 (4), 253-262.
Bakry Ahmed Bakry, Omar Maghawry Ibrahim, Abdelraouf Ramadan Eid & Elham Abdelmoneim Badr. (2014). Effect of humic acid, mycorrhiza inoculation, and biochar on yield and water use efficiency of flax under newly reclaimed sandy soil. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1427-1432.
Verheijen, F. G., Jeffery, S., Bastos, A. C., van der Velde, M., & Diafas, I. (2010). Biochar Application to Soils - A Critical Scientific Review of Effects on Soil Properties, Processes and Functions (No. EUR 24099 EN) (pp. 1–149). Luxembourg: Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities.
Schahczenski, J. (2010). Biochar and Sustainable Agriculture. National Sustsainable Agriculture Information Service. Retrieved from www.attra.ncat.org/attra- pub/PDF/biochar.pdf.
Lazcano, C., Arnold, J., Tato, A., Zaller, J. G., & Domínguez, J. (2009). Compost and vermicompost as nursery pot components: effects on tomato plant growth and morphology. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 7 (4), 944-951.
Sinha, R. K. (2009). Earthworms vermicompost: a powerful crop nutrient over the conventional compost & protective soil conditioner against the destructive chemical fertilisers for food safety and security. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 5 (S), 1-55.
Darzi, M. T., Seyedhadi, M. H., Rejali, F. (2012). Effects of the application of vermicompost and phosphate solubilizing bacterium on the morphological traits and seed yield of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6 (2), 215-219.
Girma, A., Rossiter, D., Siderius, W., & Henneman, I. (2001). Soils of the Lake Naivasha Area, Kenya (Technical Report) (pp. 1–34). the Netherlands: International Institute for Aerospace Survey & Earth Sciences.
Muchane, M. N., Muchane, M., Mugoya, C., & Masiga, C. (2012). Effect of land use system on Arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi in Maasai Mara ecosystem, Kenya. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6 (17), 3904–3916.
Machua, J. M. (2002). Mycorrhiza Staining Methods. Kenya Forest Research Institute.
Mathimaran, N., Ruh, R., Jama, B., Verchot, L., Frossard, E., & Jansa, J. (2007). Impact of agricultural management on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in Kenyan ferralsol. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 119, 22–32.
Jain, M. C., Sharma, M. K., Bhatnagar, P., Meena, M., & Yadav, R. K. (2012). Effect of Mycorrhiza and Vermicompost on Properties of Vertisol Soil and Leaf Content of Nagpur Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Asian Journal of Horticulture, 7 (2), 528–532.
Mau, A. E., & Utami, S. R. (2014). Effects of Biochar amendment and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on availability of soil phosphorous and growth of maize. Journal Of Degraded And Mining Lands Management, 1 (2), 69–74.
Laufer, J., & Tomlinson, T. (2013) Biochar Field Studies: An IBI Research Summary (Research Summary) (pp. 1-10). International Biochar Initative.
Lehmann, J., Rillig, M. C., Thies, J., Masiello, C. A., Hockaday, W. C., & Crowley, D. (2011). Biochar effects on soil biota - A review. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, 1812-1836.
Elmer, W. H., & Pignatello, J. J. (2011). Effect of Biochar Amendments on Mycorrhizal Associations and Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Asparagus in Replant Soils. Plant Disease, 95 (8), 960–966.
Warnock, D., Mummey, D., McBride, B., Major, J., Lehmann, J., & Rillig, M. (2010). Influences of non-herbaceous biochar on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundances in roots and soils: Results from growth-chamber and field experiments. Applied Soil Ecology, 46, 450–456.
Coelho, I., Pedone-Bonfim, M., Silva, F., & Maia, L. (2014). Optimization of the production of mycorrhizal inoculum on substrate with organic fertilizer. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45 (4), 1173–1178.
Sousa, C. da S., Menezes, R. S. C., Sampaio, E. V. de S., Oehl, F., Maia, L. C., Garrido, M. da S., & Lima, F. de S. (2012). Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi after organic fertilization in maize, cowpea and cotton intercropping systems. Acta Scientarum, 34 (2), 149–156.
Oehl, F., Sieverding, E., Ineichen, K., Mader, P., Boller, T., & Wiemken, A. (2003). Impact of Land Use Intensity on the Species Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Agroecosystems of Central Europe. Applied And Environmental Microbiology, 69 (5), 2816–2824.
Solaiman, Z., Sarcheshmehpour, M., Abbott, L., & Blackwell, P. (2010). Effect of biochar on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation, growth, P nutrition and leaf gas exchange of wheat and clover influenced by different water regimes. In Soil Solutions for a Changing World. Brisbane, Australia: 19th World Congress of Soil Science.
Copetta, A., Bardi, L., Bertolone, E., & Berta, G. (2011). Fruit production and quality of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are affected by green compost and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Biosystems, 145 (1), 106–115.
Shishehbor, M., Madani, H., & Ardakani, M. (2013). Effect of vermicompost and Biofertilizers on yield and yield components of common millet (Panicum miliaceum). Annals of Biological Research, 4 (2), 174–180.
Cavender, N., Atiyeh, R., & Knee, M. (2003). Vermicompost stimulates mycorrhizal colonization of roots ol Sorghum hicolor at the expense of plant growth. Pedobiologia, 47, 85–89.