Models Predicting Above- and Belowground Biomass of Thicket and Associate Tree Species in Itigi Thicket Vegetation of Tanzania
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2016, Pages: 115-125
Received: Jun. 24, 2016; Accepted: Jul. 5, 2016; Published: Jul. 21, 2016
Views 3267      Downloads 89
Joseph Sitima Makero, Forestry Training Institute, Olmotonyi, Arusha, Tanzania
Rogers Ernest Malimbwi, Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Tron Eid, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway
Eliakimu Zahabu, Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
Itigi thicket is a unique vegetation type for Tanzania and is regarded as ecologically sensitive, thus earmarked for conservation. The objective of this study was to develop species-specific biomass models for two dominating thicket species and mixed-species biomass models for associate trees in Itigi thicket vegetation. Data were collected through destructive sampling (60 thicket clumps and 30 associate trees) and covered two dominant thicket species: Combretum celastroides Laws and Pseudoprosopsis fischeri (Tab) Harms and five dominant associate tree species: Canthium burtii Bullock sensu R. B. Drumm, Cassipourea mollis (R. E. Fr.) Alston, Haplocoelum foliolosum L, Lannea fulva (Engl.) England Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin. Different nonlinear multiplicative model forms were tested, and models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion. Large parts of the variation in biomass of thicket clumps were explained by basal area weighed mean diameter at breast height of stems in the clump and number of stems in the clump, i.e. for aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) of C. celastroides up to 89% and 82% respectively and for AGB and BGB of P. fischeri up to 96% and 95% respectively. For associate trees most variation was explained by diameter at breast height (dbh) alone, i.e. up to 85% and 69% for ABG and BGB respectively. Although there will be some uncertainties related to biomass estimates for large areas, for practical reasons, we recommend the selected models to be applied to the entire area where Itigi thicket extends outside our study site, and also to those thicket and associate tree species present that were not included in the data used for modelling.
Biomass Models, Above- and Belowground, Root Sampling, Root to Shoot Ratio
To cite this article
Joseph Sitima Makero, Rogers Ernest Malimbwi, Tron Eid, Eliakimu Zahabu, Models Predicting Above- and Belowground Biomass of Thicket and Associate Tree Species in Itigi Thicket Vegetation of Tanzania, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2016, pp. 115-125. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20160504.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Vlok, J. H. J, Euston-Brown, D. I. W, Cowling, R. M. (2003). Acocks’ Valley Bushveld 50 years on: new perspectives on the delimitation, characterisation and origin of subtropical thicket vegetation. South African Journal of Botany. 69, 27 - 51.
FAO (2000). State of forest genetic resources in dry zone southern African development. Forest department. In: the SADC regional workshop on Forest and Tree Genetic Resources held in Nairobi, Kenya in December, 1999 and Arusha in June, 2000. Retrieved October 2012.
Cowling, R. M., Proche and Vlok, J. H. J. (2005). On the origin of southern African subtropical thicket vegetation: South African Journal of Botany. 7(1), 1-23.
Kindt, R., Van Breugel, P., Lillesø, J. P. B., Bingham, M., Demissew, S., Dudley, C., Friis, I., Gachathi, F., Kalema, J., Mbago, F., Minani, V., Moshi, H. N., Mulumba, J., Namaganda, M., Ndangalasi, H. J., Ruffo, C. K., Jamnadass, R. and Graudal, L. (2011). Potential natural vegetation of eastern Africa. Volume 4: Description and tree species composition for bushland and thicket potential natural vegetation types. Forest and Landscape Working Paper 64-2011.
WWF (2014). Itigi-Sumbu thicket. In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. McGinley, M: Conservation biology, WWF Terrestrial Ecoregions CollectionRetrieved February 2016.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT). (2008). Aghondi national bee reserve, Manyoni, district, Singida region. Management plan for the period of five years 2008/2009-2012/2013, FBD, MNRT. 27 pp.
Brown, S. (2002). Measuring carbon in forests: current status and future challenges. Environmental Pollution. 116, 363 - 372.
Chave, J., Condit, R., Aguilar, S., Hernandez, A., Lao, S., Perez, R., Chave, J., Condit, R., Aguilar, S. and Hernandez, A. (2004). Error propagation and scaling for tropical forest biomass estimates. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 359, 409 - 420.
Chave, J., Andalo, C., Brown, S., Cairns, M. A., Chambers J. Q., Eamus, D., Folster, H., Fromard,. F, Higuchi, N., Kira, T., Lescure, J. P, Nelson, B. W., Ogawa, H., Puig, H., Rie´ra, B. and Yamakura, T. (2005). Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia. 145, 87-99.
Chave, J., Réjou-Méchain, M., Búrquez, A., Chidumayo, E., Colgan, M. S., Delitti, W. B. C., Duque, A., Eid, T., Fearnside, P. M., Goodman, R. C., Henry, M., Martínez-Yrízar, A., Mugasha, W. A., Muller-Landau, H. C., Mencuccini, M., Nelson, B. W., Ngomanda, A., Nogueira, E. M., Ortiz-Malavassi, E., Pélissier, R., Ploton, P., Ryan, C. M., Saldarriaga, J. G. and Vieilledent, G. (2014). Improved pantropicalallometric models to estimate the above ground biomass of tropical forests. Global Change Biology. 20, 3177 - 3190.
Henry, M., Picard, N., Trotta, C., Manlay, R. J., Valentini, R., Bernoux, M. and Saint-André,L. (2011). Estimating tree biomass of sub-Saharan African forests: a review of Available allometric equations. Silva Fennica. 45, 477 - 569.
Malimbwi, R. E., Solberg, B. and Luoga, E. (1994). Estimate of biomass and volume in Miombo woodland at Kitulangalo Forest Reserve, Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 7 (2), 230-242.
Chamshama, S. A. O., Mugasha, A. G. and Zahabu, E. (2004). Biomass and volume estimation for miombo woodlands at Kitulangalo, Morogoro, Tanzania. Southern Forests. 200, 49 - 60.
Mugasha, W. A, Eid, T., Bollandsås, O. M, Malimbwi, R. E, Chamshama, S. O. A, Zahabu, E. and Katani, J. Z. (2013). Allometric models for prediction of above- and belowground biomass of trees in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania. Forest Ecology and Management. 310, 87 -101.
Mwakalukwa, E. E., Meilby, H. and Treue, T. (2014). Volume and aboveground biomass models for dry Miombo Woodland in Tanzania. International Journal of Forestry Research Retrieved October, 2014.
Tietema, T. (1993). Possibilities for the management of indigenous woodlands in southern Africa: a case study from Botswana. Pp. 134-142 in Pierce, G. D. and Gumbo, D. J. (Eds.) The Ecology and Management of Indigenous Forests in Southern Africa. Zimbabwe Forestry Commision and SAREC, Harare.
United Republic of Tanzania (URT). (2010). National forest resources monitoring and assessment of Tanzania (NAFORMA). Field manual. Biophysical survey. NAFORMA document M01–2010, p. 108.
White, F. (1983). The vegetation of Africa. UNESCO, Paris. 356pp.
SAS_ Institute Inc.(2004). SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Njana, M. A., Bollandsås, O, Eid, T., Zahabu, E. and Malimbwi, R. E. (2015). Above- and belowground tree biomass models for three mangrove species in Tanzania: a nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach, Annals of Forest Science. 70, 1-17.
Mate, R., Johansson,T. and Sitoe, A. (2014). Biomass equations for tropical tree species in Mozambique. Forests. 5, 535-556.
Kachamba, D., Eid, T. and Gobakken, T. (2016). Above- and belowground biomass models for trees in the miombo woodlands of Malawi. Forests. 7, 38; doi: 10.3390/f7020038.
Mokany, K., Raison, R. J. and Prokushkin, A. S. (2006). Critical analysis of root: shoot ratios in terrestrial biomes. Global Change Biology. 12, 84–96.
Munishi, P. K. T. and Shear, T. H. (2006). Carbon storage in afromontane rainforests of the eastern arc mountains of Tanzania: Their net contribution to atmospheric carbon. J. Trop. For. Sci. 16, 78–93.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186