Determinants of Smallholder Commercialization of Tomato Crop in Siltie Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 9, Issue 6, December 2020, Pages: 163-173
Received: Sep. 22, 2020;
Accepted: Oct. 12, 2020;
Published: Nov. 4, 2020
Views 63 Downloads 34
Bahilu Ejeta, Department of Agricultural Economics, Werabe University, Werabe, Ethiopia
Derebe Ermias, Department of Agricultural Economics, Werabe University, Werabe, Ethiopia
Gosaye Ashetu, Department of Agricultural Economics, Werabe University, Werabe, Ethiopia; Department of Plant Science, Werabe University, Werabe, Ethiopia
The productivity of agricultural resources was very low; especially in the developing world where production is common on fragile lands and characterized by small-scale subsistence farming. Commercialization of agriculture provides farm households with a means to alleviate poverty and food insecurity by generating incomes in the rural areas. This paper aims to identify factors affecting commercialization of tomato crop by smallholder farmers in Siltie Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Both structured and unstructured questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion were used to collect data from 175 respondents randomly selected from designated locations in the study area. Descriptive statistics and heckman two stage models were used to analyze the collected data. According to first stage Heckman selection estimation (probit regression) model result, Education, frequency of extension contact, distance to market, market agreement and lagged price played a significant role in smallholder commercialization decision. In the second-stage of Heckman selection estimation family size, education, land allocated for tomato production, frequency of agricultural extension contact, distance to nearest market, productivity, lagged price and inverse mill’s ratio were significantly affect level of tomato commercialization. Thus, the study recommends the need for designing appropriate intervention mechanisms focusing on the abovementioned factors so as to improve the performance of tomato crop commercialization.
Determinants of Smallholder Commercialization of Tomato Crop in Siltie Zone, Southern Ethiopia, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
Vol. 9, No. 6,
2020, pp. 163-173.
Ahmed, Y. E., Girma, A. B. and Aredo, M. K., 2016. Determinants of smallholder farmers participation decision in potato market in Kofele district, Oromia region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1 (2), pp. 40-44.
Alemu, G., 2015. Market performance and determinants of marketed surplus of teff, in the case of Bacho woreda in south west shewa zone, Oromia national regional state (Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia).
Alamerie, K., 2016. Commercial Behaviour of Smallholder Potato Producers: The Case of Kombolchaworeda, Eastern Part of Ethiopia. Economics of Agriculture, 63 (1), pp. 159-173.
AVRDC (Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center), 2014. Scoping study on vegetables seed systems and Policy in Ethiopia, report.
Benti, G., Degefa, G., Biri, A. and Tadesse, F., 2017. Performance Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties Under Supplemental Irrigation at Erer Valley, Babile District, Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Sciences, 5 (1), pp. 1-5.
Binalfew, T., Alemu, Y., Geleto, J., Wendimu, G. and Hinsermu, M., 2016. Performance of introduced hybrid tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) cultivars in the Rift Valley, Ethiopia. International Journal of Research, pp. 1-25.
Birhanu, K. and Keteme T., 2010. Fruit yield and quality of drip-irrigated tomato under deficit irrigation. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 10 (2).
Cochran, W. G., 1977. Double sampling. Cochran WG. Sampling techniques. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp. 327-58.
Cragg, J. G., 1971. Some statistical models for limited dependent variables with application to the demand for durable goods. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, pp. 829-844.
CSA (Central statistical Agency), 2018. Agricultural Sample Survey Report on Area and Production of Crops. Statical Bulletin 586, April, 2018, Addis Ababa.
Demeke, L. and Haji, J., 2014. Econometric analysis of factors affecting market participation of smallholder farming in Central Ethiopia.
Dessie, M., Woldeamanuel, T. and Mekonnen, G., 2017. Value chain analysis of red pepper: the case of Abeshge District, Guragie Zone, South Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources, 2 (3), pp. 94-101.
FAOSTAT (Food and Agriculture Organization/Statistics), 2018. Statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Gebreselassie, S. and Ludi, E., 2008. Agricultural Commercialization in Coffee Growing Areas of Ethiopia, Future Agricultures.
Gemechis, A. O., Struik, P. C. and Emana, B., 2012. Tomato production in Ethiopia: constraints and opportunities. Tropentag 2012, International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development. Resilience of Agricultural Systems against Crises: Book of Abstracts, 373.
Getahun T. A., 2018. Determinants of commercialization and market outlet choice choices) of tef: the case of smallholder farmers in Dendi district of Oromia, Central Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, Haramaya University).
Goshu, D., Tura, E. G., Demise, T. and Kenead, T., 2016. Determinants of market participation and intensity of marketed surplus of teff producers in Bacho and Dawo districts of Oromia State, Ethiopia. Forthcoming: Agricultural Economics.
Gujarati, D. N., 2005. Basic econometrics (5 th Reprint).
Heckman, J. J., 1979. Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica: Journal of the econometric society, pp. 153-161.
Kassa, G., Yigezu, E. and Alemayehu, D., 2017. Determinants of smallholder market participation among banana growers in bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. International Journal of Agricultural Policy Research, 5, pp. 169-177.
Kiprotich Sigei, G., 2014. Determinants of Market Participation Among Small-Scale Pineapple Farmers in Kericho County, Kenya (No. 634-2016-41488).
Leta, E. T., 2018. Determinants of commercialization of teff crop in Abay Chomen District, Horo Guduru wallaga zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, 10 (12), pp. 251-259.
Mbegallo, F. J., 2016. Status, determinants and effect of agriculture commercialization among smallholder farmers in Tanzania (Doctoral dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture).
Mbitsemunda, J. P. K. and Karangwa, A., 2017. Analysis of factors influencing market participation of smallholder bean farmers in Nyanza district of Southern Province, Rwanda. Journal of Agricultural Science, 9 (11), pp. 99-111.
Megerssa, G. R., Negash, R., Bekele, A. E. and Nemera, D. B., 2020. Smallholder market participation and its associated factors: Evidence from Ethiopian vegetable producers. Cogent Food &. Agriculture, 6 (1), p. 1783173.
Melese. W. and Samul. S., 2018. Review on Disease Management Practice of Tomato Wilt Caused Fusarium oxysporum in Case of Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. 9: 460.
Melese, T., Dessie, A. B. and Abate, T. M., 2018. Determinants of commercialization by smallholder onion farmers in Fogera district, South Gondar Zone, Amhara national regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 10 (10), pp. 339-351.
MoA (Ministry of Agriculture). 2013. Animal and plant health regulatory directorate crop variety register. Issue No. 15. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 180.
Moono L., 2015. An Analysis of Factors Influencing Market Participation among Smallholder Rice Farmers in Western Province, Zambia. A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science In Agricultural and Applied Economics.
Moyo, T., 2010. Determinants of participation of smallholder farmers in the marketing of small grains and strategies for improving their participation in the Limpopo River Basin of Zimbabwe (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).
Muricho, G. S., 2015. Determinants of agricultural commercialization and its impacts on welfare among smallholder farmers in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
Ohen, S. B., Etuk, E. A. and Onoja, J. A., 2013. Analysis of market participation by rice farmers in southern Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4 (7), pp. 6-11.
Olwande, J. and Mathenge, M. K., 2011. Market participation among poor rural households in Kenya (No. 680-2016-46733).
Osmani, A. G. and Hossain, E., 2015. Market participation decision of smallholder farmers and its determinants in Bangladesh. Economics of Agriculture, 62 (297-2016-3664), pp. 163-179.
Sebatta, C., Mugisha, J., Katungi, E., Kashaaru, A. and Kyomugisha, H., 2014. Smallholder farmers’ decision and level of participation in the potato market in Uganda. Modern Economy, 2014.
Sies, H., Stahl, W. and Sundquist, A. R., 1992. Antioxidant functions of vitamins: Vitamins E and C, Beta‐Carotene, and other carotenoids a. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 669 (1), pp. 7-20.
Ssekyewa, C., 2006. Incidence, distribution and characteristics of major tomato leaf curl and mosaic virus diseases in Uganda (Doctoral dissertation, Ghent University).
SZBoA (Siltie Zone Bureau of Agriculture), 2019. Socio-economic profile description of Siltie Zone, Ethiopia.
Teka, B. M., 2019. Determinants of Commercialization of Agricultural Products in East and West Gojjam, and Awi Zones, Amahara Region, Ethiopia.
Tobin, J., 1952. A Survey of the Theory of Rationing. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, pp. 521-553.
Wickramasinghe, U. and Weinberger, K., 2013. Smallholder market participation and production specialization (No. 107). Working Paper.
Woldesenbet, A. T., 2013. Value chain analysis of vegetables: the case of habro and Kombolcha woredas in Oromia region, Ethiopia. School of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness School of Graduate Studies, Haramaya University.