Batch Studies for the Investigation of the Mechanism of Pb Sorption in Selected Acid Soils of China
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 3-1, May 2015, Pages: 11-20
Received: Feb. 25, 2015;
Accepted: Feb. 25, 2015;
Published: May 19, 2015
Views 3950 Downloads 102
Nkwopara U. N., Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria; College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, MOA, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China
Emenyonu-Chris C. M., Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Ihem E. E., Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Ndukwu B. N., Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Onweremadu E. U., Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Ahukaemere C. M., Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Egbuche C. T., Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Hu H., College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agricultural Resources and Environment, MOA, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China
The experiment focuses on mechanisms of Pb retention on acid soils. A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of solution pH and ionic strength of electrolytes which will show the mechanisms of Pb retention on the soils. Result show that sorption of lead was affected strongly by solution pH and ionic strength of electrolytes. Retention of lead increased with increase in solution pH and decreased with increase in ionic strength of electrolytes. This suggests that surface complexation and ion exchange are the mechanisms of Pb retention on these acid soils. At pH above 6 there was precipitation of lead. SEM studies visualized the formation of white layers of Pb over the soil surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the adsorption of lead ions made the surface of the soil particles rougher than those without lead. This morphological change points to the formation of a surface coating on the soil particles.
Nkwopara U. N.,
Emenyonu-Chris C. M.,
Ihem E. E.,
Ndukwu B. N.,
Onweremadu E. U.,
Ahukaemere C. M.,
Egbuche C. T.,
Batch Studies for the Investigation of the Mechanism of Pb Sorption in Selected Acid Soils of China, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Special Issue: Environment and Applied Science Management in a Changing Global Climate.
Vol. 4, No. 3-1,
2015, pp. 11-20.
Mouni, L., Merabet, D., Robert, D., Bouzaza, A. Batch studies for the investigation of the sorption of the heavy metals Pb2+ and Zn2+ onto Amizour soil (Algeria). Georderma, 2009. 154, pp 30-35.
Strawn, D.G., Sparks, D.L. The use of XAFS to distinguish between inner- and outer-sphere lead adsorption complexes on montmorillonite. Journal of Colloid Interface Science, 1999. 216, pp 257 – 269
Appel, C., Ma, L.Q. Concentration, pH, and surface charge effects on cadmium and lead sorption in three tropical soils. Journal Environmental Quality, 2002. 31, pp581-589.
Bradl, H.B. (2004). Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soil constituents. Journal Colloid Interface Science, 1999. 277, pp 1 – 18.
Taylor, R.W. Kinetics and mechanism of metal retention/release in geochemical processes in soil. Final report. U.S. Department of Energy.
Lutzenkirchen, J. Ionic strength effects on cation sorption to oxides: macroscopic observations and theur significance in microscopic interpretation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1997. 195, pp149 – 155.
Nelly, J.W., Isacoff, E.G. Carbonaceous Adsorbents for the Treatment of Ground and Surface water, Marcel Dekker, New York. 1982.
Gupta, S. Pal, A., Ghosh, P.K. Bandyopadhyay, M. Performance of waste activated carbon as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of anionic surfactant from aquatic environment. Journal Environmental Science Health, 2003. A38, pp 381- 397.
Deng, S., Renbi, B., Chen, J.P. Behaviour and mechanisms of copper adsorption on hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile fiber. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2003. 260,pp 265- 272.
Zhang, X., Bai, R.B. Deposition/adsorption of colloids to surface-modified granules: effect of surface interactions. Langmuir, 2002. 18, pp3459-3465.
Namasivayam, C., Kavitha, D. IR, XRD and SEM studies on the mechanism of adsorption of dyes and phenols by coir pith carbon from aqueous phase. Microchemical Journal, 2006. 82 (1), pp 43 – 48.
Foth, H.D. Fundamentals of Soil Science. 7th Ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984.
Borggaard, O.K., Elberling, B. Pedological Biogeochemistry. Paritas Grafik, Brondby, Denmark. 2004
Gimsing, A.L., Szilas, C., Borggaard, O.K. Sorption of glyphosate and phosphate by variable-charge tropical soils from Tanzania. Geoderma, 2007, 138, pp127-132.
Elzahabi M, Yong R. N. pH influence on sorption characteristics of heavy metal in the vadose zone. Engineering Geology, 2001, 60, pp 61-68.
Pagnanelli F, Esposito A, Toro L, Veglio’ F. Metal speciation and pH effect on Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd biosorption onto sphaevotilu natan: Langmuir –type emperical model. Water Resources, 2003, 37, pp 627-633.
Unuabonah E I, Olu–Owolabi, B I, Adebowale K O, Ofomaja A E. Adsorption of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by triphosphate – impregnated kaolinite clay. Colloids and surface A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2007, 292, pp 202 – 211.
Chang, J., Law, R., Chang, C. Biosorption of lead, copper and cadmium by biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Water Resources, 1997, 31, pp1651- 1658.
Erenturka S, Malkocb E. Removal of lead (II) by adsorption onto Viscum album L.: Effect of temperature and equilibrium isotherm analyses. Applied Surface Science, 2007, 253 (10), pp 4727 -4733.
Yang J Y, Yang X E, He Z L, Li T Q, Shentu J L, Stofella P J. Effects of pH, organic acids and inorganic ions on lead desorption from soils. Environmental Pollution, 2006, 143, pp 9 – 15.
Tan, X.L., Chang, P.P., Fan, Q.H., Zhou, X., Yu, S.M., Wu, W.S., Wang, X.K. Sorption of Pb(II) on Na-rectorite: effects of pH, ionic strength, temperatuire, soil humic acid and fulvic acid. Colloids Surface, 2008, A328, pp 8-14.
Doula, M., Ioannou, A. The effect of electrolyte anion on Cu adsorption-desorption by clinoptilolite. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2003, 58 (2), pp 115 – 130.
Neal R H, Sposito G. Effects of soluble organic matter and sewage sludge amendments on cadmium sorption by soils at low cadmium concentrations. Soil Science, 1986, 142, pp 164-172.
Adebowale, K.O., Unuabonah, I.E., Olu–Owolabi, B.I. (2006). The effect of some operating variables on the adsorption of lead and cadmium ions on kaolinite clay. Journal of Hazardous materials B, 134 : 130 – 139.
Wang, S. Jun, H. Li, J. and Dong, Y. Influence of pH, soil humic/fulvic acid, ionic strength, foreign ions and addition sequence on adsorption of Pb(II) onto GMZ bentonite. Journal Hazardous Material, 2009, 167, pp 44 -51.
Goel J, Kadirvelu K, Rajagopai C, Garg V.K. Removal of lead (II) by adsorption using treated granular activated carbon: Batch and Column studies. Journal of Hazardous Material, 2005, 125 (1 -3), pp 211- 220.
Qin F, Shan X, Wei B. Effects of low – molecular –weight organic acids and residence time on desorption of Cu, Cd, and Pb from soils. Chemosphere, 2004, 57, pp 253–263.
Schofield, R.K. and Samson, H.R. Flocculation on kaolinite due to the attraction of oppositely charged crystal faces, Discuss. Faraday Society, 1954, 18, pp 135- 145.
Sposito, G. The chemistry of soils. Oxford press, London.1989.
Naidu R., Bolan N. S., Kookana R. S., Tiller K. G. Ionic strength and pH effects on surface charge and Cd sorption characteristics of soils. Journal of Soil Science, 1994, 45, pp 419 -429.
Li, L.Y. Li, R.S.. The role of clay minerals and the effect of H+ ions on removal of heavy metals (Pb2+) from contaminated soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 2000, 37, pp296- 307.
Spark, K.M. Johnson, B.B. and Wells, J.D. Characterizing trace metal adsorption on kaolinite. European Journal of Soil Science, 1995, 46(4), pp 633-640.
Barrow, N.J. and Ellis, A.S.  Testing a mechanistic model V. the points of zero salt effect for phosphate retention, for zinc retention and acid/ alkali titration of a soil. Journal Soil Science, 37, pp303 -310.
Barrow, N.J. (1985) Reactions of anions and cations with variable charge soils. Advances in Agronomy, 38, pp 183 – 230.
Chen, H.M. Heavy metal pollution in soil-plant system. Science Press Beijing, 1996.
Songhu, Y., Zhimin, X., Yi, J., Jinzhong,W., Chan, W., Zhonghua, Z., Xiaohua, L. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids. Chemosphere, 2007, 68, pp1289-1297.
Philips, I.R. Lamb, D.T. Walker, D.W. Burton, E.D. Effect of pH and salinity on copper, lead, and zinc sorption rates in sediments from Moreton bay, Australia. Bulletin Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 2004, 73, pp 104-108.
Xu, Y.H., Zhao, D.Y. Removal of copper from contaminated soil by use of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers. Journal Environmental Science Technology, 2005, 39, pp2369 – 2375.
Stumn, W., Morgan, J. Aquatic Chemistry. Wiley, New York, 1996.
Businelli, M., Casciari, F., Businelli, D., Gigliotti, G. Mechanisms of Pb(II) sorption and desorption at some clays and goethite-water interface. Agronomie, 2003, 23, pp 219-225
Xu, D., Tan, X.L., Chen, C.L., Wang, X.K. Removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. J. Hazard. Mater., 2008. 154, pp407-416.
Li, J., Xu, R.K., Tiwari, D., Ji, G.L. Effect of low- molecular- weight organic anions on exchangeable aluminum capacity of variable charge soils. Applied Geochemistry, 2006, 21, pp1750 – 1759.