Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 4-1, August 2015, Pages: 59-72
Received: Mar. 30, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 28, 2015;
Published: May 27, 2015
Views 6693 Downloads 241
Sanmarie Schlebusch, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa
People's survival and their quality of life, are irrefutable dependent on the natural environment in which they reside. To ensure that people's quality of life be maintained in any specific area, it is therefore imperative to find a sustainable equilibrium between the social and economic needs of people and the capacity of the natural resources in their environment. The composition of communities is, however, complex and diverse. The multiplicity of culture, gender and age in any particular community, give rise to needs that is unique regarding to that community as well as the impact thereof on the natural environment. For this reason, it will require an ingenious planning approach be followed, whereby the unique needs of people in an specific area as well as the protection of the natural environment simultaneously be addressed. Characteristics of a sustainable community are typically, a healthier, safer, greener, economically independent community which is well managed. Furthermore it has lower transportation costs and less traffic, is more economic in terms of housing and market demands, shows decreased costs of infrastructure and also has low level of air pollution. Place-making, through layout and design, is an integrative planning approach in creating sustainable communities. Place-making is fundamentally a strategy aimed at creating one or more places in an area which, serve as focal points for economic and social activities of people in the community. Such places will contribute to the quality of life in a community and will also encourage more people to visit the area.
Planning for Sustainable Communities: Evaluating Place-Making Approaches, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Special Issue: Planning for Sustainable Communities: Green-Spaces in Rural Areas.
Vol. 4, No. 4-1,
2015, pp. 59-72.
H. Girardet. Creating Sustainable Cities. Dartington: Green Books, 1999.
A. Power. Sustainable communities and sustainable development: a review of sustainable communities. 2004. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/28313/1/CASEreport23.pdf
D. Geis, and T. Kutzmark. Developing Sustainable Communities: the future is now. 2006. http://freshstart.ncat.org/articles/future.htm
D. Jaber .The Language of Sustainability: why words matter. 2009. http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2009/11/18/language-sustainability-why-words-matter
United States Environmental Protection Agency. Action Planning and the sustainable Community. 2012. http://www.epa.gov/greenkit/sustain.htm
W.L. Filho. Dealing with misconceptions of the concept of sustainability. 2000. http://www.esd.leeds.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/esd/2._International_Journal_of_Sustainability_in_Higher_Education_2000_Leal_Filho.pdf
P.R. Berke. Does Sustainable Development Offer a New Direction for Planning? Challenges for the Twenty-First Century. 2002. http://arroyofilms.com/ftpuser/2nd%20wknd/Berke.pf
Vanderbilt University Sustainability and Environmental Management Office.. What is Sustainability? 2013. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/sustainvu/who-we-are/what-is-sustainability/
Peter, C. & Swilling, M. 2012. Sustainable, Resource Efficient Cities – Making it Happen! http://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/resource/sustainable-resource-efficient-cities-%E2%80%93-making-it-happen Date of access: 22 May 2013.
Institute for Sustainable Communities.. What is a Sustainable Community? 2014. http://www.iscvt.org/what_we_do/sustainable_community/
Natural Resources Defense Council. Sustainable Communities. 2012. http://www.nrdc.org/sustainable-communities/
Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future. Sustainable Communities. 2010. http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_c/mod17.html
United Nations (UN). Economic aspects of sustainable development in South Africa. 1997. http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/safrica/eco.htm
Project for Public Spaces. What is Placemaking? 2011a. http://www.pps.org/reference/what_is_placemaking/.
Placemaking Chicago. What is placemaking? 2008. http://www.placemakingchicago.com/about/
M. Lamit, A. Ghahramanpouri, and S . Sedaghat Nia. A Behavioral Observation of Street Liveliness in Meldrum Walk, Johor Bahru of Malaysia. 2012. http://tuengr.com/V04/003-014.pdf
J. Jacobs. Placemakers. 2011. http://archigar.blogspot.com/2011/02/placemakers-jane-jacobs.html
J. Grant. Planning the Good Community. 2006. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1464935080266683#.U0VWzfmSx3k
Project for Public Spaces. All Placemaking is Creative: how a shared focus on place builds vibrant destinations. 2013. http://www.pps.org/blog/placemaking-as-community-creativity-how-a-shared-focus-on-place-builds-vibrant-destinations/
R. Veenhoven, and J. Ehrhardt. The cross-national pattern of happiness: test of predictions implied in three theories of happiness. 1995. Social Indicators Research, 34:33-68.
E.J .Cilliers, W. Timmermans, F. Van den Goorbergh, and J.S.A. Slijkhuis, The Lively Cities (LICI) background document: LICI theory and planning approaches. Part of the LICI project (Lively Cities, made possible by INTERREG IVB North West Europe, European Regional Development Fund, European Territorial Cooperation, 2007-2013. Wageningen University of Applied Sciences, Van Hall Larenstein).
M. Pacione. Urban Geography: A global perspective. 2005. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
VCEC. 2011. VCEC Regulatory Conference. 2011. http://www.vcec.vic.gov.au/CA256EAF001C7B21/pages/vcec-regulatory-conference-2011#.UuUo6fu6Jdg
Hobart City Council.. Hobart .Public Spaces and Public Life, a city with people in mind. 2010. http://www.hobartcity.com.au/Hobart/A_City_with_People_in_Mind
S. Harrison and P. Dourish, Re-place-ing space: the roles of place and space in collaborative systems. 1996. http://www.dourish.com/publications/1996/cscw96-place.pdf
H. Soholt, Life, spaces and buildings – turning the traditional planning process upside down. 2004. http://www.walk21.com/papers/Copenhagen%2004%20Soholt%20Life%20spaces%20and%20buildings%20turning%20the%20t.pdf
The Economist Intelligence Unit. Liveable Cities: challenges and opportunities for policymakers. 2010. https://www.europeanvoice.com/GED/00020000/22400/22491.pdf
C. Loudier and J.L Dubois. Public spaces: between insecurity and hospitality. 2001. http://www.ocs.polito.it/biblioteca/verde/uk_PARTIE201_C133.134.pdf
K.F. Lanham, Planning as placemaking: tensions of scale, culture and identity. Blacksburg, Vancouver: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 2007.
Project for Public Spaces. The Atlantic Interviews Fred Kent. 2011b. http://www.pps.org/blog/the-atlantic-interviews-fred-kent/
R. A. Williams, Environmental Planning for Sustainable Urban Development. 2000. http://www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsaidis/cwwa9/will.pdf
I. Scoones. Livelihoods perspectives and rural development. 2009. Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(1):1-26.
R. LeGates and , F. Stout. A Short History of Urban Planning. 2013. www.docslide.com/a-short-history-of-urban-planning/
Project for Public Spaces. Transforming Cities through Placemaking and Public spaces. 2012. http://www.urbangateway.org/sites/default/ugfiles/Transforming%20Cities%20Through%20Place%20Making_%20PPS_Cynthia%20Nitikin.pdf
S. Cowan, M. Lakeman, J. Leis, D. Lerch, and J.C. Semenza. The City Repair Project. 2006. www.inthefield.info/city_repair.pdf
Toronto. Creative city planning framework: a supporting document to the agenda for prosperity: prospectus for a great city. Toronto: AuthentiCity. 2008.
A. McBride. Community Wisdom + Expert Knowledge = Good Community Design. 2013. http://www.pps.org/blog/community-wisdom-expert-knowledge-good-community-design/
B. Breman, M. Pleijte, S. Ouboter, and A. Buijs, Participatie in waterbeheer. Een vak apart. 2008. http://www.levenmetwater.nl/static/media/files/Praktijkhandleiding_participatie_in_het_waterbeheer.pdf
R. Thornton. What is New Urbanism? - Part 1. , 2010. http://www.examiner.com/article/what-is-new-urbanism-part-1
J. Craven. What is New Urbanism? 2013. http://architecture.about.com/od/communitydesign/g/newurban.htm
Michigan Land Use Institute. 10 Principles of New Urbanism . 2006. http://www.mlui.org/mlui/news-views/articles-from-1995-to-2012.html?archive_id=678#.UzP64fmSx3k
S.M.A. Haq. Urban green spaces: an integrative approach to sustainable environment. 2011. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=5881#.Ut_FThD8LIU
C. S. Gomes and E.M. Moretto. A framework of indicators to support urban green area planning: a Brazilian case 2011. study.http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/piaees/articles/2011-1(1)/A-framework-of-indicators-to-support-urban.pdf
J. Schilling. Towards a Greener Green Space Planning. 2010. http://www.lumes.lu.se/database/alumni/08.10/Thesis/Schilling_Jasper_Thesis_2010.pdf
T. Baycan-Levent and P. Nijkamp, Urban Green Space Policies : a comparative study on performance and success conditions in European cities. 2004. http://dare2.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/handle/1871/8932/20040022.pdf?sequence=1
H.D. Kasperidus, I.S. Erjavec, M. Richter, C.S Costa, B. Edlich. B.Guideline for the General Procedure of Developing and Implementing an Urban Green Space Strategy. 2006. http://www.greenkeys-project.net/media/files/greenkeys_strategy_guideline.pdf