A Framework for Planning Green Spaces in Rural South Africa
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 4, Issue 4-1, August 2015, Pages: 80-86
Received: Apr. 2, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 2, 2015; Published: May 27, 2015
Views 5239      Downloads 142
Author
Elizelle Juaneé Cilliers, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa, 2520
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The importance of planning for green spaces is well captured in literature, focusing on the direct and indirect benefits which such spaces provides to various beneficiaries, from local authorities to local communities. However, the planning and implementation of such spaces, especially in a rural context, is complex. The value of spaces is perceived differently by different stakeholders, and this is also true for the rural environments, characterized with unique challenges and needs. This paper captures the value of green spaces and relates it to specific rural considerations, in order to state the value that green spaces can provide to rural areas and communities. The Vaalharts case study is used to explain current realities and best practice options and the paper concludes with a framework for the planning of green spaces in rural South Africa, including all aspects and design elements that should be considered in the planning and provision of green spaces.
Keywords
Green spaces, rural areas, framework, Vaalharts rural area
To cite this article
Elizelle Juaneé Cilliers, A Framework for Planning Green Spaces in Rural South Africa, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Special Issue: Planning for Sustainable Communities: Green-Spaces in Rural Areas. Vol. 4, No. 4-1, 2015, pp. 80-86. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.s.2015040401.20
References
[1]
O. Barbosa, J.A. Tratalos, P.R. Armsworth, R.G. Davies, R.A. Fuller, P. Johnson and K.J. Gaston, “Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK”, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 83, pp. 187-195, 2007.
[2]
C.M. Shackleton and A. Blair, “Perceptions and use of public green space is influenced by its relative abundance in two small towns in South Africa”, Landscape and urban Planning, vol. 113, pp. 104-112, 2013.
[3]
M.M. McConnachie and C.M. Shackleton, “Public green space inequality in small towns in South Africa,” Habitat International, vol. 34(2), pp. 244–248, 2010.
[4]
C.M. Sutton, on urban open space: a case study of Msunduzi Municipality, South Africa. Canada: Queens University. (Thesis – B.Sc). School of Environmental Studies. 139 p, 2006.
[5]
E. Lange, S. Hehl-Lange and M.J. Brewer, “Scenario-visualization for the assessment of perceived green space qualities at the urban–rural fringe”, Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 89, pp. 245-256, 2007.
[6]
K.L. Wolf, on public value of nature: economics of Urban trees, parks and open space, Design with Spirit, Washington: Edmond, uEnvironmental Design Research Association, 2004.
[7]
N. De Jong, Addressing social issues in rural communities by planning for lively places and green spaces, Dissertation submitted to the North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2013.
[8]
Campbell, C., Nair, Y., Maimane, S. & Sibiya, Z. 2008. Supporting people with AIDS and their carers in rural South Africa: Possibilities and challenges. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/5471/ Date of access: 28 Feb. 2013.
[9]
Department of Rural Development and Land Reform, Rural Development Framework, Pretoria, South Africa, 1997.
[10]
Gopaul, M. 2006. The significance of rural areas in South Africa for tourism development through community participation with special reference to Umgababa, a rural area located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Pretoria: University of South Africa. (Dissertation – Master of Arts).
[11]
Van der Ploeg, H. Renting, G. Brunori, K. Knickel, J. Mannion, T. Marsden, K. de Roest, E. Sevilla-Guzman, E. and F. Ventura, “Rural Development: From Practices and Policies towards Theory,” Sociologis Ruralis, vol. 40(4), pp. 391-408., 2000.
[12]
L. Lategan, A study of the current South African housing environment with specific reference to possible alternative approaches to improve living conditions, Masters dissertation submitted to the North-West University, South Africa, 2012.
[13]
South Africa, Department of Housing, White Paper on a New Housing Policy and Strategy for South Africa, 1994/
[14]
Department of Rural Development and Land Reform, Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS), Pretoria, South Africa, 2000.
[15]
T. Cannon, J. Twigg and J. Rowell, Social vulnerability, sustainable livelihoods and disasters, Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwhich, 2005.
[16]
D.C. Okeke, An analysis of spatial development paradigm for enhancing regional integration within national and its supporting spatial systems in Africa, Doctoral Degree submitted to the North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2014.
[17]
R. Stiles, “Urban spaces – enhancing the attractiveness and quality of the urban environment,” WP3 Joint Strategy. University of Technology, Vienna, December 2006.
[18]
S.S. Cilliers, E.J. Cilliers, C.E. Lubbe, S.J. Siebert, “Ecosystem services of urban green spaces in African countries—perspectives and challenges,” Urban Ecosystems, vol. 16(4), pp. 681-702, 2013.
[19]
E.J. Cilliers, E. Diemont, D.J. Stobbelaar and W. Timmermans, “Sustainable Green Urban Planning: The Workbench Spatial Quality Method,” Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 4(2), pp. 214-224, 2012.
[20]
E.G. McPherson, S.E. Maco, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper, Q. Xiao, A.M. Van Der Zanden and N. Bell, on Western Washington and Oregon community tree guide: benefits, costs, and strategic planning. Silverton: International Society of Arboriculture, 2002.
[21]
Greenspace Scotland, “Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review,” Scotland, 2008, Http://www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/pdf/greenspace_and_quality_of_life_literature_review_aug2008.pdf Date of Access: 2 April 2014.
[22]
P. Bolund and S. Hunhammar, "Ecosystem services in urban areas," Ecological Economics, vol. 29(2), pp.293-301, 1999.
[23]
H. Akbari, M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha, “Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas," Solar Energy, vol. 70(3), pp. 295-310, 2001.
[24]
E. Alexandri and P. Jones, "Temperature decreases in an urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates," Building and Environment, vol. 43(4), pp. 480-493, 2008.
[25]
S. Hodgkison and JM. Hero, "The efficacy of small-scale conservation efforts, as assessed on Australian golf courses." Biological Conservation, vol. 135(4), pp. 576-586, 2007.
[26]
E.J. Cilliers and W. Timmermans, “The importance of creative participatory planning in the public place-making process,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, vol 41. (EPB 139-098), 2014.
[27]
A.E. Kazmierczak and P. James, on the role of urban green spaces in improving social inclusion, Salford: University of Salford, School of Environment and Life Sciences, 2008.
[28]
F.E. Kuo, “The role of arboriculture in a healthy social ecology,” Journal of Arboriculture, vol. 29(3), pp. 148-155, 2003.
[29]
A, Van den Berg, T. Hartig, and H. Staats, “Preference for Nature in Urbanized Societies: Stress, Restoration, and the Pursuit of Sustainability,” Journal of Social Issues, vol. 63(1), pp. 79-96, 2007.
[30]
S.U. Roger, on health benefits of gardens in hospitals: Plants for People, Texas: Centre for health systems and design, 2003.
[31]
B. Thaiutsa, L. Puangchit, R. Kjelgren and W. Arunpraparut, “Urban green space, street tree and heritage large tree assessment in Bangkok, Thailand,” Forestry and Urban Greening, vol. 7(3), pp. 219-229, 2008.
[32]
E.J. Cilliers, E. Diemont, D.J. Stobbelaar and W. Timmermans, “Sustainable Green Urban Planning: The Green Credit Tool,” Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 3(1), pp. 57-66, 2010.
[33]
A. Chiesura, “The role of urban parks for the sustainable city,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 68, pp. 129-138, 2004.
[34]
D.A. Cohen, J.S. Ashwood, M.M. Scott, A. Overton, K.R. Evenson, L.K. Staten, D.Porter, T.L. Mckenzie, and D. Catellier, “Public parks and physical activity among adolescent girls,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, pp. E1381-E1389, 2006
[35]
N. Owen, N. Humpel, E. Leslie, A. Bauman, and J.F. Sallis, “Understanding environmental influences on walking: Review and research agenda,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 27, pp. 67-76, 2004.
[36]
R. Hansmann, S.M. Hug and K. Seeland, K, “Restoration and stress relief through physical activities in forests and parks,” Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, vol. 6, pp. 213-225, 2007.
[37]
A.F. Taylor, F.E. Kuo and W.C. Sullivan, “Views of nature and self-discipline: Evidence from inner city children,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 22, pp. 49-63, 2002.
[38]
H. Woolley, C. Swanwick and N. Dunnet, on nature, role and value of green space in towns and cities: an overview. 2003. www.atypom-link.com/ALEX/doi/abs/10.2148/benv.29.2.94.54467.
[39]
Cabe Space, “Paying for parks: Eight models for funding urban green space,” London, 2005. www.cabe.org.uk/files/Paying-for-parks-full-report.pdf. (Accessed 20 April 2009).
[40]
J. Luttik, “The value of trees, water and open space as reflected by house prices in the Netherlands,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 48, pp. 161-167, 2000.
[41]
M. Lutzenhisher and N.A. Netusil, “Effect of Open Spaces on a Home’s Sale Price,” Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 19, pp. 291-298, 2001.
[42]
V.K. Smith, C. Poulos and H. Kim, “Treating open space as an urban amenity,” Resource and Energy Economics, vol. 24, pp. 107–129, 2002.
[43]
S.D. Shultz and D.A King, “The Use of Census Data for Hedonic Price Estimates of OpenSpace Amenities and Land Use,” Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, vol. 22, pp. 239-252, 2001.
[44]
C. Jim, Y. Wendy and Y. Chen, “Impacts of urban environmental elements on residential housing prices in Guangzhou (China),” Journal of landscape and urban planning, vol. 78, pp. 422–434, 2006.
[45]
B. Bolitzer and N.R. Netusil, “The impact of open spaces on property values in Portland, Oregon,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 59(3), pp. 185-193, 2000.
[46]
S.T. Anderson and S.E. West, “Open space, residential property values and spatial context,” Journal of Regional Science and urban economics, vol. 36(6), pp. 773-789, November 2006.
[47]
Statistics South Africa, Victims of crime survey, Pretoria, South Africa, 2011.
[48]
C. Loudier and J.L. Dubois, Public spaces: Between insecurity and hospitality, 2001.
[49]
A. Shackell, Design for Play: A guide to creating successful play spaces, England, 2008.
[50]
A.T. More, T. Stevens, and P.G. Allen, “Valuation of urban parks,” Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 15, pp. 139-152, 1988.
[51]
J. Zomervrucht, Gradually grow to cycle: Experiences with a child-friendly public space, Netherlands, 2005.
[52]
C.C. Marcus and C. Francis, People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Spaces, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1998.
[53]
J. Byrne and N. Sipe, Green and Open Space Planning for Urban Consolidation – A Review of the Literature and Best Practice, Brisbane: Griffith University, 2010.
[54]
TEEB, The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity: Ecosystem Services in Urban Management, 2011.
[55]
L. Cilliers, Evaluating the spatial and environmental benefits of green space: An international and local comparison on rural areas, Dissertation submitted to the North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2014.
[56]
H. Rohr, Water Sensitive Planning: An integrated approach towards sustainable urban water system planning in South Africa, Masters Dissertation submitted to the North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2012.
[57]
O.H. Caspersen, C.C. Konijnendijk and A.S. Olafsson, “Green space planning and land use: An assessment of urban regional and green structure planning in Greater Copenhagen,” Geografisk Tidsskrift, Danish Journal of Geography, vol. 106(2), pp. 7-20, 2006.
[58]
C.J. Fausold and R. Lilieholm, “The economic value of open space: A review and synthesis”, Environmental Management, vol. 23(3), 1999.
[59]
M. Meadows, “The ecological resource base: biodiversity and conservation”, the geography of South Africa in a changing world. Cape Town: Oxford University Press South Africa, 1999.
[60]
S.J. Schmidt, “The evolving relationship between open space preservation and local planning practice”, Journal of Planning History, vol. 7(2), pp. 91-112, 2008.
[61]
C. Thompson, “Urban open space in the 21st century”, Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 2(7), pp. 59-72, 2002.
[62]
H. Coetzee, Research Report 2: Needs assessment conducted in the Vaalharts Region, North West and Northern Cape Provinces, South Africa (A North West living labs baseline projects), Potchefstroom: Research Logistics cc, 2011.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186