Green Economy: Challenges and Prospects for Improved Aquatic Agricultural System (AAS) in Niger Delta Communities
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2014, Pages: 28-35
Received: Sep. 21, 2014;
Accepted: Oct. 10, 2014;
Published: Oct. 20, 2014
Views 3624 Downloads 140
Nenibarini Zabbey, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, East-West Road, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria
Ijeoma Favour Vincent-Akpu, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, East-West Road, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria
Ibisime Etela, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, East-West Road, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria
There is dire need for deliberate green action plan to solve the endemic environmental crises occasioned by unsustainable utilization of natural resources and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta; a region with its characteristic terrain and eco-fragility that is highly susceptible to adverse environmental and climate change-related disasters. But, to successfully implement a green economy plan in the Niger Delta region, there has to be a well-thought out strategy with due appraisal of baseline environmental issues and concerns. The people of the delta depend, primarily, on the exploitation of the region’s rich bio-resources with fishing and farming forming the major sources of livelihoods. Observations by independent and intergovernmental global environmental protection players indicate that, the creeks, lands, mangroves, forests, etc provide inestimable goods and ecological services to the region’s inhabitants. Yet, they have been consistently degraded over the past four decades, mainly by industrial activities. Some identified challenges in greening the region and viable alternatives for sustainable agricultural development are, also, discussed. The authors have, therefore, proposed strategies such as consideration of complex biophysical and socio-economic factors, multi-stakeholder engagement, and a paradigm shift from the contemporary fossil energy-based agriculture to the more sustainable practices of biofuels and organic agriculture. A modelled paradigm for transforming current improved aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) to become more productive while, maintaining ecosystem services is proposed. Therefore, this paper examines current environmental issues and concerns as well as efforts variously made to address them in the Niger Delta against the backdrop of existing economic activities.
Ijeoma Favour Vincent-Akpu,
Green Economy: Challenges and Prospects for Improved Aquatic Agricultural System (AAS) in Niger Delta Communities, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Special Issue: Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment.
Vol. 3, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 28-35.
Environmental Justice Foundation 2004, Farming the Sea, Costing the Earth: Why We Must Green the Blue Revolution, Environment Justice Foundation (EJF), UK. 77 pp.
Awosika, L. F., 1995, ‘Impact of Global Climate Change and Sea Level Rise on Coastal Resource and Energy Development in Nigeria, In: Umolu, J. C. (Ed.). Global Climate Change: Impact on Energy Development’. DAMTECH Nigeria Limited, Nigeria.
Spalding, M., Kainuma, M., Collins, L., 2010, World Atlas of Mangroves. London, UK: Washington, DC: Earthscan.
Aston-Jones, N. 1998, ‘The Human Ecosystems of the Niger Delta – An ERA Handbook’, Kraft Books Limited, Ibadan.
Adams, W. M., 1993, Indigenous use of Wetlands and Sustainable Development in West Africa, The Geographical Journal, 159(2), 209-218.
Allison-Oguru, E. A., Berepubo, N. A., Kalio, A. E., 2002, ‘Agriculture, In: Alagoa, E. J. and Derefaka, A. A. (Eds), The land and people of Rivers State: Easthen Niger Delta’, 361-386.
Earys, S., 2005, A Guide to Bycatch Reduction in Tropical Shrimp-trawl Fisheries. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 110 pp.
Amnesty International (AI) 2009, Nigeria: Petroleum, pollution and poverty in the Niger Delta, AI International Secretariat, London, UK.
UNDP, 2006, Niger Delta Human Development Report. UNDP. (accessed 22.02.13).
Aaron, K. K., 2005, Perspective: Big Oil, Rural Poverty, and Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health, 11(2), 127-134.
Steiner, R., 2008, Double Standards? International Standards to Prevent and Control Pipeline Oil Spills, Compared with Shell Practices in Nigeria. A Report Submitted to Friends of the Earth, The Netherlands. 61pp.
Pegg, S., Zabbey, N., 2013, Oil and water: the Bodo spills a nd the destruction of traditional livelihood structures in the Niger Delta, Community Development Journal 48, 391 – 405.
Zabbey, N., Uyi. H., 2014, Community responses of intertidal soft-bottom macrozoobenthos to oil pollution in a tropical mangrove ecosystem, Niger Delta, Nigeria, Marine Pollution Bulletin 82, 167 -174.
Dung, E. J., Bombom, L. S., Agusomu, T. D., 2008, The effects of gas flaring on crops in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, Geojournal, 73, 293-305.
Environmental Rights Action and Climate Justice Programme 2005, ‘Gas Flaring in Nigeria: A human rights, environmental and Economic Monstrosity’, 33pp
Nduka, J. K. C., Orisakwe, O. E., Ezenweke, L. O., Ezenwa, T. E., Chendo, M. N., Ezeabasili, N. G. (2008). Acid rain phenomenon in Niger Delta region of Nigeria: Economic, biodiversity, and public health concern, The Scientific World Journal, 8, 811-818.
Ajugwo, A. O., 2013, Negative effects of gas flaring: the Nigerian experience, Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 1(1), 6-8.
Hodgson, G., 1994, The environmental impact of marine dredging in Hong Kong. Coastal Management in Tropical Asia 2, 1 - 8.
Arimoro, O. A., Ikomi, R. B., 2008, Response of macroinvertebrate communities to abattoir wastes and other anthropogenic activities in a municipal stream in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, Environmentalist 28, 85–98.
Zabbey, N., Etela, I., 2011, Impact of abattoir waste on Woji Creek, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, using physicochemistry and macrobenthic diversity indices, African Journal of Aquatic Science, 36, 279-287.
Butler, R. A., 2006, Diversities of Image – Rainforest Biodiversity, Retrieved 9 January 2006, from Mongabay.com / A place out of time: Tropical Rainforests and the Perils they face, http://www.rainforest.mongabay.com/0305.htm.
Oladipo, D., 2010, The state of Nigeria’s forests, International Institute of Tropical 4, 24-25.
Zabbey, N., Hart, A. I., Erondu, E.S., 2010, Functional roles of mangroves of the Niger Delta to the coastal communities and national economy, In: Ansa, E. J., Fashina, B., Ndimele, P. E. (Eds) Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference and Fair of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON), held 25-29 October, 2010 at the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON), Topo, Badagry, Lagos, 115-118.
Nellemann, C., Corcoran, E., Duarte, C. M., Valdes, L., De Young, C., Fonseca, L., Grimsditch. E. (Eds.). (2009). Blue carbon. A rapid response assessment. United Nations Environment Programme. GRID-Arendal, www.grida.no.
Okon, R. N. and Egbon, P. C., 1999, Fiscal Federalism and revenue allocation, The poverty of the Niger Delta, In: Aigbokhan, B. E. (Ed.) Fiscal Federalism and Nigeria’s Economic Development, Annual Conference of the Nigerian Economics Society (NES), Ibadan.
IPCC 1990, Working Group 111, 1990, Strategies for Adaptation to Sea Level Rise. Report of the coastal zone management subgroup, Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change Working Group, Rikkswaterstatt, Netherlands, 122 pp.
Ogba, C. O., Utang, P. B., 2007, Vulnerability and adaptations of Nigeria’s Niger Delta coast settlements to sea level rise. TS 7B Coastal Zone Management and Environmental Issues. Strategic Integration of Surveying Service, FIG Working Week, Hong Kong SAR, China, 15.
Willler, H., Kilcher, L., (Eds) 2009, The World of Organic Agriculture, Statistic and Emerging Trend IFOAM, DE-Bonn and FiBL, CH-frick. 339 pp.
Niggli, U., Flieβbach, A., Hepperly, P., Scalabba, N., 2009, Low greenhouse gas agriculture: mitigation and adaptation potential of sustainable farming system FAO, April 2009, Rev. 2 – 2009, Rome. Italy.
Binns, P., 2012, Opportunities and Challenges Facing Farmers in Transitioning to Green Economy Agriculture Practice. Perspectives (Issue № 5), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 24 pp.
UNEP 2008, Green Jobs: towards decent work in a sustainable, low carbon world, UNEP/ILO/IOE/ITUC, Available: www.unep.org/civil-society/publications/index.asp.
Nandy, S., Mitra, S. 2004, Features of Indian Sunderbans mangrove swamps, Environment and Ecology, 22, 339-344.
Ronnback, P., Crona, B., Ingwall, L., 2007, The return of ecosystem goods and services in replanted mangrove forests: perspective from local communities in Kenya. Environmental Conservation, 34(4), 313-324
Lebel, L., Anderies, J. M., Campbell, B., Folke, C., Hatfield-Dodds, S., Hughes, T. P., Wilson, J., 2006, Governance and the capacity to manage resilience and regional social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 11(1), 19.
Weeratunge, N., Chiuta, T. M., Choudhury, A., Ferrer, A., Husken, S. M. C., Kura, Y., Kusakabe, K., Madzudze, E., Maetala, R., Naved, T. T., Scgwarz, A., Kantor, P., 2012, Transforming aquatic agriculture systems towards gender equality: a five country review. CGIAR Working paper AAS-2012-21.
Scherr, S. J., McNeely, J. A., 2008, Biodiversity conservation and agricultural sustainability: towards a new paradigm of ‘ecoagriculture’ landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society 163, 477-494.
Hart, S.A., Hart, A.I., 1998, Aspects of the food and feeding biology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Perciformes: Mugilidae) in Bonny Estuary, Nigeria. African Journal of Applied Zoology 1, 39 – 54.