Effects of Urban Forestry on the Local Climate in Cotonou, Benin Republic
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Volume 6, Issue 4, August 2017, Pages: 123-129
Received: May 12, 2017; Accepted: May 24, 2017; Published: Jul. 10, 2017
Views 2063      Downloads 95
Authors
Oscar Teka, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
Codjo Euloge Togbe, Laboratory of Plant Biology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
Rosos Djikpo, Laboratory of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
Romeo Chabi, Laboratory of Biogeography, Department of Geography and Land Planning, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Benin
Bruno Djossa, High School of Forestry and Wood Engineering, National University of Porto-Novo, Porto-Novo, Benin
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The effect of urban green on meteorological parameters such as temperature and relative humidity was assessed on one major city street in Cotonou called “Boulevard de Missèbo-Zongo” (BMZ). Tree inventory and field measurement of meteorological parameters were performed on the roadside and central median of the BMZ. Dendrometric data collected were the number of tree species, the number of tree individuals per species, the diameter of trees at breast height, the tree heights, the tree crown shape, shade form on the ground when the sun is at Zenith; while the meteorological data were the air temperature and the relative humidity inside and outside of urban green at 1.5, 2 and 3 meters height measured from 7am to 6pm at one hour interval. Data were analyzed using Mixed Generalized Linear Model under R 3.3.1 software. Results showed that street alignment trees were poorly diversified and dominated by Khaya senegalensis. This species appeared to be highly pruned and threatened because of its numerous medicinal virtues. Moreover it was found that air temperature and relative humidity were influenced by the time and the place of measurement. The coolness effect of urban green was evidenced by the decrease in temperature under alignment trees compared with that recorded on roadside free of trees. These results suggested that urban green could be adopted as adaptation strategy to address the issue of global warming in the city.
Keywords
Alignment Plantation, Dendrometric Characterization, Meteorological Parameter, Tree Diversity
To cite this article
Oscar Teka, Codjo Euloge Togbe, Rosos Djikpo, Romeo Chabi, Bruno Djossa, Effects of Urban Forestry on the Local Climate in Cotonou, Benin Republic, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2017, pp. 123-129. doi: 10.11648/j.aff.20170604.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Kim, S.-H., Chung, U. L., Joshua L. & Anderson, R. E. (2012). Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Forests in the Puget Sound region: Climate Sustainability for Tree Species. School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, College of the Environment, University of Washington.
[2]
Chow, W. T. L., Nur, S., Binte, A., Akbar, A., Li, S., & Roth, M. (2016). Assessment of measured and perceived microclimates within a tropical urban forest. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 16, 62–75. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug. 2016.01.010.
[3]
Hsieh, C-M. & Jan Zhang, L. (2016). A simplified assessment of how tree allocation, wind environment, and shading affect human comfort. Urban For. Urban Green. 18, 126–137.
[4]
Kadir, M. A. A. & Orthman, N. (2012). Towards a better tomorrow: street trees and their values in urban areas. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 267-274.
[5]
FAO. (2012). La foresterie urbaine et périurbaine.
[6]
IPCC. (2011). Mitigation, Climate change. IPCC special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation.
[7]
Clark, J. R., Matheny, N. P., Cross, G. & Wake, V., (1997). A Model of Urban Forest Sustainability. Journal of Arboriculture. 23, 17-30.
[8]
McPherson, E. & Simpson, J. R. (2003). Potential energy savings in buildings by an urban tree planting programme in California. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2; 073-086.
[9]
Lopez, F. & Roussel, J. M. (2010). Encombrement des trottoirs: Les espaces verts. Une voirie pour tous. Fiche n°3.5. 10p.
[10]
Kenney, W. A., van Wasseanaer, P. J. E. & Satel, A. L. (2011). Criteria and Indicators for Strategic Urban Forest Planning and Management. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry. 37, 108-117.
[11]
Abreu-Harbich, L.V., Labaki, L.C. & Matzarakis, A. (2015). Effect of tree planting design and tree species on human thermal comfort in the tropic. Landscape and Urban Planning 138, 99-109.
[12]
FAO. (2000). La foresterie urbaine en Amérique du nord et ses interactions au niveau mondial. NAFC/8.
[13]
Vaz, M., Doick, K. J., Handley, P. & Peace, A. (2016). The impact of greenspace size on the extent of local nocturnal air temperature cooling in London. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 16, 160–169. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.02.008.
[14]
Bory, G. (2000). L’arbre dans la ville. On ne regarde pas les arbres en ville ! Dossier foret. Fiche extraite du Dossier Forêt.170p.
[15]
FAO. (2011). Situation des forêts du monde. Rome, Italie. 176p.
[16]
Poe, M. R., McLain, R. J., Emery, M. & Hurley, P. T. (2013). Urban forest justice and the rights to wild foods, medicines, and materials in the city. Human Ecology, 41(3), 409-422.
[17]
Sanesi, G., Gallis, C., & Kasperidus, H. D. (2015). Urban Forests and Their Ecosystem Services in Relation to Human Health. In K. Nilsson, M. Sangster, C. Gallis, T. Hartig, S. vries De, K. Seeland, & J. Schipperijn (Eds.), Forests, Trees and Human Health (pp. 23–40). Springer.
[18]
Akpinar, A. (2016). Urban Forestry & Urban Greening How is quality of urban green spaces associated with physical activity and health? Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 16, 76–83. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.01.011.
[19]
Shackleton, S., Chinyimba, A., Hebinck, P., Shackleton, C. & Kaoma, H. (2015). Landscape and Urban Planning Multiple benefits and values of trees in urban landscapes in two towns in northern South Africa. Landscape and Urban Planning, 136, 76–86. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.12.004.
[20]
Kim, G., Miller, P. A., & Nowak, D. J. (2015). Assessing urban vacant land ecosystem services: Urban vacant land as green infrastructure in the City of Roanoke, Virginia. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14 (3), 519–526. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.05.003.
[21]
INSAE/RGPH4. (2013). Quatrième Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitation: Que retenir des effectifs de population en 2013 ? Cotonou, Bénin, 35 p.
[22]
Akoègninou, A., Van der Burg, W. J. & Van der Maesen, L. J. G. (2006). Flore analytique du Bénin (No. 06.2). Backhuys Publishers.
[23]
Ouinsavi, C. (2000). In situ conservation of Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss: socio-economic relevance, structure and dynamic of natural communities and Productivity of trial plantations in Benin. Engineer Agronomist Thesis, FSA/UAC, Abomey-Calavi, Benin, 120 p.
[24]
Sokpon, N. & Ouinsavi, C. (2004). Gestion des plantations de Khaya senegalensis au Bénin. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, n° 279 (1) 37.
[25]
Stewart, I. D. & Oke, T. (2009). Classifying urban climate field sites by “local climate zones”: The case of Nagano, Japan. In: Seventh International Conference on Urban Climate (Vol. 29).
[26]
Feyisa, G. L., Dons, K. & Meilby, H. (2014). Efficiency of parks in mitigating urban heat island effect: An example from Addis Ababa. Landscape and Urban Planning 123, 87-95.
[27]
Gromke, C., Blocken, B., Janssen, W., Merema, B., van Hooff, T. & Timmermans, H. (2015). CFD analysis of transpirational cooling by vegetation: Case study for specific meteorological conditions during a heat wave in Arnhem, Netherlands. Building and Environment 83, 11-26.
[28]
Arya, S. P. (1999). Air pollution meteorology and dispersion (Vol. 6). New York: Oxford University Press.
[29]
Rodriguez Potes, L. M., Hanrot, S., Dabat, M. A. & Izard J. L. (2012). 2nd International Congress on Ambiances, Montreal.
[30]
Panagopoulos, T. (2008). Using microclimatic landscape design to create thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Actas da 1st Conferência sobre Edificios Eficientes, Universidade di Algarve, 25 de Janeiro.
[31]
Hsieh, C. M., Ni, M. C. & Tan, H. (2014). Optimal wind environment design for pedestrians in transit–oriented-development planning. Journal of Environment Protection and Ecology 3A, 1385-1392.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186